Physio Final Part 1

  1. The motor activity of the smooth muscle of the gut is controlled by the __
    • myenteric plexus (of enteric nervous system)
    • slow waves
    • Ca influx triggers the release of more stored Ca, which causes a contraction of smooth muscle.
  2. In the female reproductive cycle, ________ is/are normally produced every 28 days.
    A single ovum
  3. Cholecystokinin is stimulated by __ and released by __ cells
    proteins, fats, and acid; I (of small intestine)
  4. Cholecystokinin stimulates __
    • pancreatic enzyme and bicarbonate release into the small intestine
    • gall bladder contraction
  5. Cholecystokinin inhibits __
    gastric emptying
  6. Spike potentials are action potentials that occur when __
    • resting potential reaches about -40mV
    • slow waves reaches a threshold
  7. A greater # of spike potentials is generated when __
    there is a greater amplitude of slow wave
  8. Depolarization occurs during a spike potential when __
    Ca++/Na+ channels open (long duration, slow rate)
  9. __________________ can be a cause of physiological shock
    • decreased venous return: hypovolemia (low volume of blood), hemorrhagic (bleeding out), decreased vascular tone, obstruction of blood flow
    • decreased cardiac output: cardiogenic (decrease in heart’s ability to pump), myocardial infarction, valve dysfunction
  10. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone stimulate the growth and development of sperm ________.
    indirectly by binding to Sertoli cells
  11. The absence of ________ in the fetus will further the development of the ________ into the female reproductive tract.
    Mullerian inhibiting factor/substance (MIF); Mullerian (paramesonephric) ducts
  12. Which of the following ions act as a buffer to minimize changes in intracellular pH?
    Phosphate (mostly) or protein
  13. Contraction of mesangial cells results in a ________, which decreases glomerular filtration.
    decreased surface area of capillaries available for filtration
  14. Macrophages that phagocytose large quantities of lipids may develop into __
    foam cells
  15. Chemical digestion refers to __
    Modifying the chemical structure of food by enzymatic breakdown, converting them into a useful source of energy or for other biochemical purposes:

    • carbs into sugar
    • proteins into peptides & amino acids
    • lipids into fatty acids & glycerol
  16. In the absence of the implantation of a fertilized embryo, the menstrual phase of the uterine cycle is initiated by the degeneration of the ________.
    Corpus luteum
  17. When is the second polar body produced?
    Following meiosis II (in females)
  18. Where does blood leaving the glomerulus go to next?
    Glomerular capillary
  19. Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as __
    Bicarbonate ions in the blood
  20. Which of the following is an accessory organ of digestion?
    pancreas & liver
  21. What hormone is responsible for secondary sex characteristics in males?
  22. Sex differentiation of a fetus is controlled by the production of ________, which is coded for by the ________ gene.
    • Testis-determining factor (TDF);
    • Sex-determining region Y (SRY)
  23. In tubuloglomerular feedback, an increase in glomerular filtration rate would increase the ________, thereby stimulating the release of a paracrine factor from the macula densa that would ________.
    • Flow of tubular fluid;
    • Constrict the afferent arteriole
  24. As the food is broken into smaller pieces in the mouth, it is combined with ________ that facilitates its movement down the esophagus.
    saliva (contains amylase)
  25. Prolonged vomiting of the stomach's contents can result in __
    Metabolic alkalosis
  26. High carbon dioxide concentration in body fluids is called __
  27. Mechanical digestion refers to __
    Breakdown of large particles of food into smaller particles so they are easy to swallow and increases the surface area to breakdown more nutrients
  28. The absorption of nutrients in the GI tract __
    • Occurs primarily in the small intestine
    • goes to liver for glycogen storage
  29. Where does fertilization usually occur?
    uterine tube
  30. How does severe vomiting cause a metabolic alkalosis?
    Loss of acids
  31. In the digestive system, HCl is released by ________, whereas HCO3- is secreted primarily from the ________.
    • Parietal cells of stomach;
    • Pancreas
  32. Gastrin release is stimulated by __ and inhibited by __
    • proteins, stomach and small intestine distention/eating food, vagal nerve activity
    • acid
  33. Gastrin is produced by __ cells and stimulates __
    G (in stomach wall); gastric acid secretion
  34. A person who suffers from hyperventilation will exhibit signs of __
    Respiratory alkalosis
  35. Slow waves are __ potentials that DO NOT __
    graded (NOT action); induce muscle contraction
  36. Slow waves induce the appearance of intermittent __
    spike potentials
  37. Slow waves occur between __ (stomach) and __ (small intestine per min.
    3; 12
  38. Slow waves are caused by __ acting as pacemaker cells for smooth muscle
    interstitial cells of Cajal
  39. Slow waves activate __ channels
Card Set
Physio Final Part 1
Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, and Reproductive System