Physiology Exam

  1. The motor activity of the smooth muscle of the gut is controlled by the
    Myenteric plexus
  2. The ___ ___ ___ primarily propels food
    The enteric nervous system
  3. The digestive tract is a long tube made up of 4 layers, name them.
    • mucosa 
    • submucosa 
    • muscularis propria 
    • adventitia
  4. Between 2 of digestive tract layers, there is a network of nerves that are the source of?
    electrical excitation to make the smooth muscles contract
  5. How many nerve plexuses are responsible for the innervation of the digestive system
    2
  6. The myenteric nerve plexus is responsible for?
    The submucosal nerve plexus is responsible for? What else exhibits some sort of control over the digestive system?
    • stimulating activity in the muscular layer
    • gastric secretions
    • hormones
  7. Slow waves are a type of _____ ____ with an intensity between __ & __
    • graded potential
    • 5mV and 15mV
  8. Slow waves don't produce ____ but rather produce _____ ____ when they hit _____
    • contractions 
    • spike potentials 
    • threshold
  9. The ____ ____ stimulates the opening of Ca/Na channels. This leads to a ____.
    • Spike potentials
    • contractions
  10. It is thought that the cause of slow waves are ____ ___ of ___. Also state the function
    • interstitial cells of cajal 
    • act as pacemakers for smooth muscle
  11. In the female reproductive cycle, ___ is/ are normally produced every 28days.
    A single ovum
  12. ______ release is stimulated by proteins, fats and acid
    cholecystokinin
  13. Cholecystokinin released by?
    I cells of small intestine
  14. Cholecystokinin stimulates?
    Cholecystokinin inhibits?
    • Stimulates: (I)pancreatic enzyme and bicarbonate release into the small intestine (II) gall bladder contraction
    • Inhibits: (I)gastric emptying
  15. A hormone that exerts control over the digestive system. Also state what stimulates the release of that hormone (3) (hint released by I cells)
    Cholecystokinin 

    Proteins, fats and acids
  16. Cholecystokinin stimulates pancreas to release?
    enzymes and bicarbonate
  17. Spike potentials are ___ ____ that occur when resting potential reaches roughly ___
    • action potentials 
    • -40mV
  18. The greater ____ of slow wave, the greater the ____ of spike potentials generated
    • amplitude 
    • frequency
  19. Depolarization of spike potentials occurs when?
    Ca/Na channels open (long duration)
  20. Spike potentials are the result of ____ ____ reaching a _____. Spike potentials cause Ca/Na channels to ____. Ca and Na flow in at a ____ rate.
    • slow waves 
    • threshold
    • open 
    • slow
  21. In spike potentials, Ca influx triggers the release of more __ which causes a _____ of ____
    • Ca
    • contraction of smooth muscle
  22. Possible causes of physiological shock (4)
    • Hypovolemia (low blood volume)
    • hemorrhagic shock (bleeding out)
    • cardiogenic shock (decrease in heart's ability to pump blood)
    • decreased venous return/ decreased cardiac output
  23. Cardiac abnormalities can decrease?
    heart's ability to pump blood
  24. Cardiogenic shock and decreased venous return/decreased cardiac output are both forms of physiological shock. Name 3 causes of cardiogenic shock and 3 factors that lead to decreased venous return/ decreased cardiac output
    • Cardiogenic shock: (I)myocardial infraction (II) arrhythmia (III) severe valve dysfunction
    • Decreased venous return/ decreased cardiac output: (I) diminished blood volume (hypovolemic shock) (II) decreased vascular tone (III) obstruction of blood flow
  25. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone stimulates the growth and development of sperm _____.
    indirectly by binding to sertoli cells
  26. The absence of _____ in the fetus will further the development of the ____ into the female reproductive tract.
    mullerian inhiting substance; mullerian ducts
  27. Which of the following ions acts as a buffer to minimize changes in intracellular pH?
    Phosphate
  28. Name two intracellular buffers
    • Phosphate (MAJOR)
    • proteins
  29. Contraction of mesangial cells results in a ____, which decreases glomerular filtration
    Decreases surface area of capillaries available for filtration
  30. Macrophages that phagocytose large quantities of lipids may develop into?
    Foam cells
  31. List 3 parts of plaque structure (atherosclerosis)
    • foam cells 
    • lipids
    • smooth muscle cells
  32. fatty streak
    an accumulation of lipids, foam cells and SMCs in the tunica intima
  33. Atheroma
    a clump of cells that swells outwards into the lumen and starts to block the blood vessel itself and could eventually rupture. (early development is seen in fatty streaks which show up in blood vessels).
  34. Chemical digestion refers to
    modifying the chemical structure of food by enzymatic breakdown:

    • carbs into simpler sugars
    • proteins into peptides and amino acids
    • lipids into fatty acids & glycerol
  35. Chemical digestion is the enzymatic breakdown of molecules to convert them into?
    • Useful source of energy or for other biochemical purposes
    • **Enzymes chemically modify the composition of food
  36. In the absence of the implantation of a fertilized embryo, the menstrual phase of the uterine cycle is initiated by the degeneration of the ___ ___
    corpus luteum
  37. When is the second polar body produced?
    Following meiosis II in females
  38. Where does blood leaving the glomerulus go to next?
    glomerular capillary
  39. Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as
    Bicarbonate ions in the blood
  40. which of the following is an accessory organ of digestion?
    • Pancreas
    • Liver
  41. What hormone is responsible for secondary sex characteristics in males
    Testosterone
  42. Sex differentiation of a fetus is controlled by the production of ____, which is coded for by the _____ gene
    Testis-determining factor (TDF); sex-determining region Y (SRY) P. 705
  43. In tubuloglomerular feedback, an increase in glomerular filtration rate would increase the ____, thereby stimulating the release of a paracrine factor from the macula densa that would _____.
    Flow of tubular fluid; constrict the afferent arteriole
  44. As the food is broken down into smaller pieces in the mouth, it is combined with _____ that facilitates its movement down the esophagus.
    Saliva
  45. Saliva lubricates the food particles making it easier to _____ them. It also contains _____.
    • swallow 
    • amylase
  46. What the function of amylase in saliva
    begins the digestions of complex carbs into simpler carbs and sugars
  47. Prolonged vomiting of the stomach's contents can result in
    Metabolic alkalosis
  48. High carbon dioxide concentration in body fluids is called
    hypercapnia
  49. Mechanical digestion refers to
    • Breakdown of large particles of food into smaller particles so they are easy to swallow
    • increases the surface area to breakdown more nutrients
  50. The absorption of nutrients in the GI tract occurs primarily in the? What role do villi play?
    • small intestine 
    • villi increase surface area and microvilli (surface with brush border enzymes)
  51. During absorption of nutrients in the GI tract, nutrient rich blood goes where?
    Liver for glycogen storage
  52. Where does fertilization usually occur?
    Uterine tube
  53. How does severe vomiting cause a metabolic alkalosis
    loss of acids
  54. In the digestive system, HCl is released by _____, whereas HCO3- is secreted primarily from the _____.
    Parietal cells of stomach; Pancreas
  55. Gastrin release is stimulated by? (3)
    • Proteins
    • stomach and small intestine distention/ eating food 
    • vagal nerve activity
  56. What inhibits gastrin?
    What produces gastrin?
    • presence of acids
    • G cells in stomach wall
  57. What does gastrin stimulate
    gastric acid secretion
  58. Slow waves are
    • Rhythmic; not action potentials
    • They are graded potentials and DO NOT induce muscle contraction
  59. Slow waves induce the appearance of intermittent ___ _____ which cause?
    • spike potentials 
    • smooth muscle contraction
  60. How many slow wave cycles occur in the stomach and small intestine per minute?
    • Stomach: 3 per minute 
    • Small intestine: 12 per minute

    • **duodenum: 11-12 per minute
    • **ileum: 9 per minute
  61. Slow waves are caused by ___ acting as ___
    interstitial cells of Cajal acting as pacemaker cells for smooth muscle
  62. Slow waves activate?
    Na channels
  63. Atherosclerosis can happen in ___ &___; higher occurrences in ____.
    • artery & veins
    • arteries
  64. What type of disease is atherosclerosis?
    Inflammatory disease or Inflammatory vascular disorder
  65. If the arterial bulge (_____) ruptures it will expose the contents of the underlying subendothelial layer like ____ & ___ _____ ____. What do they induce?
    • Atheroma
    • collagen & von willebrand factor
    • inducers of clotting factors, they make blood clots begin to form
  66. What is the process of infection for atherosclerosis (-- means leads to) (15 steps)
    Through Endothelial receptors, LDL is distributed across the sub-endothelial layer --LDL metabolizes cells it encounters/gets oxidized --cells release chemical attracting macrophages (cell adhesion molecules)--macrophages move into cell--macrophages break down oxidized LDL by scavenger receptor--phagocytosis turns macrophage into (yellow) foam cells--foam cell divides/releases cytokines that attract smooth muscle cells-- causing inflammation and forming a fatty streak-- atheroma forms and swells out--blocks vessel-- ruptures--collagen comes and clot forms--intrinsic pathway blockage--embolism--possible stroke or heart attack
  67. fatty streaks are formed by
    lipid-engorged macrophages (leading to an aggregation of SMCs & inflamed foam cells)
  68. Risk factors that increase chances of atherosclerosis
    • Genes
    • sedentary lifestyle
    • smoking/drinking
  69. apo-Milano protein
    Isolated mutant gene without fatty streaks that can be used to treat atherosclerosis
  70. The chloride shift occurs when?
    Bicarb is dumped into blood stream in exchange for Cl- with H+ to form HCl
  71. Purpose of chloride shift?
    To keep red blood cell's voltage or membrane potential at the same charge. (-70mV)
  72. Emulsification aids in the digestion of fats by _____.
    Increasing the surface area of the fat globule exposed to enzymes
  73. The ____ produces bile which is an ____. It helps fat mix with ____ by _____ the fat.
    • liver
    • emulsifier 
    • water 
    • emulsifying
  74. Emulsification breaks large fat globules into small fat globules what are two results?
    • Increases the surface area of the fat 
    • Increases/ improves its digestion in the small intestine
  75. Which is not a function of the kidneys?
    Producing the hormones melatonin and oxytocin
  76. Function of the kidneys: (9)
    • filtration 
    • reabsorption
    • secretion/ hormone production (like erythropoeitin & renin)
    • regulates pH 
    • regulates blood pressure
    • urine production 
    • indirect regulation of interstitial fluid
    • endocrine function 
    • activation of vitamin D
  77. G cells of the stomach secrete
    Gastrin
  78. 7 expected factors of progressive hemorrhagic shock
    • cardiac depression
    • vasomotor failure
    • blockage of very small vessels 
    • increased capillary permeability 
    • generalized cellular deterioration 
    • tissue necrosis in severe shock
    • acidosis in shock
  79. define cardiac depression and state results
    When blood flow decreases below what is required to provide nutrients and oxygen adequately to heart

    • Depressed cardiac output 
    • Decreased ATP
  80. Vasomotor failure
    diminished blood flow to brain's vasomotor center depresses the center causing less activity and eventual shut down
  81. During vasomotor failure, what causes vasodilation?
    Decreased vascular tone
  82. What causes blockage of very small vessels? State 2 results
    Sluggish blood flow leads to clotting due to accumulation of carbonic acid, lactic acid and other products of ischemic tissues.

    • Increased acidity 
    • Decreased pH leads to CNS depression
  83. What leads to increased capillary permeability? What is the result?
    • Capillary hypoxia 
    • Further reduction of blood volume as fluid accumulates in the tissues
  84. Which pump is decreased during generalized cellular deterioration? What is the result?
    • Na+/K+ pump 
    • Accumulation of Na+ & Cl- and a loss of K+ in the cell. The tissues then swell due to osmosis
  85. What are the three other results of generalized cellular deterioration?
    • Mitochondrial activity decreases (especially in liver)
    • lysosomes begin to break down releasing hydrolases leading to further deterioration 
    • cellular metabolism decreases
  86. Two things to expect during cellular deterioration because some tissues experience greater damage than others during shock due to smaller blood supplies
    • Cells nearer to arterial capillaries have better blood flow than venous capillaries
    • Lesions may develop in the liver, kidneys, heart and lungs
  87. Acidosis in shock results from poor oxygen delivery to the tissues. What are 2 expectations?
    • cells shift to anaerobic respiration, producing large amounts of lactic acid
    • poor perfusion leads to impaired removal of CO2 as well, which also contributes to acidosis
  88. The primary role of the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system is
    • Stabilize pH
    • Limit pH changes caused by organic and fixed acids
  89. How does the bicarbonate buffer system stabilize blood pH
    takes up protons or releases them as conditions of the blood change
  90. All of the following will normally be found in the filtrate except
    Erythrocytes
  91. Expected content of glomerular filtrate
    • water
    • salt 
    • glucose 
    • urea
  92. The ____ is a significant site of absorption of water and electrolytes, but NOT of nutrients
    Large intestine
  93. All of the non nutritional remains of the digestive process enter the ____ ____, where the absorption of ____ and ____ takes place. The remaining material at this point is subject to _____ breakdown.
    • large intestine 
    • water and electrolytes 
    • bacterial
  94. Cadiovascular shock
    decreased cardiac output with simultaneous drop in blood pressure
  95. During what renal process are molecules selectively removed from the tubule lumen, moved into the interstitial space, and removed from the kidneys by the peritubular capillaries and the vasa recta?
    Reabsorption
  96. What cells function to secrete hydrogen ions into the lumen of the stomach?
    Parietal cells aka oxyntic cells aka delomorphous cells
  97. The most important chemical regulator of respiration is
    carbon dioxide
  98. Some fats end up in the bloodstream, but they don't flow very well in the blood because?
    Blood is a water based solution that is polar, and fats/lipids are non-polar and hydrophobic.
  99. To transport lipids, the ____ produces apo-lipoproteins that bind to the _____ thereby making transport possible.
    • liver
    • lipids
  100. When lipids are being transported, they bind to ___ receptors and will be taken into the ______ layer
    • LDL receptors
    • subendothelial layer
  101. Lipids accumulate in the intimal layer and become _____. _____ processes cause surrounding cells to start releasing chemicals whose function is to?
    • oxidized
    • oxidative 
    • attract white blood cells, specifically macrophages
  102. Chemicals cause vascular endothelium to express ____ ____ molecules that cause macrophages to adhere to?
    • cell adhesion molecules
    • wall of vessel and move in
  103. Macrophages consume the _____ lipids. Foam cells begin to secrete various chemicals that stimulate?
    • Oxidized
    • smooth muscles to come into the area and start to divide in the in the intimal layer.
  104. SMCs (smooth muscle cells) accumulate around foam cells and form _____, which will lead to the formation of a/an _____.
    • fatty streak
    • atheroma
  105. The force for glomerular filtration is the?
    Blood pressure/hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries
  106. The loss of reproductive capacity that occurs as females age is caused by?
    Changes in hormone secretory patterns: Less estrogen and progesterone
  107. Chief cells aka _____ cells
    Zymogenic or peptic cells
  108. Once _____ mixes with HCl, it is converted into its active form ____.
    • Pepsinogen
    • Pepsin
  109. Pepsin begins the chemical breakdown of?
    protein into peptides
  110. How does severe diarrhea cause metabolic acidosis?
    Bicarbonate is unable to be absorbed by large intestine; lower GI accumulates a lot of bicarbonate
  111. The hormonal trigger for menstruation involves a ____.
    Loss of progesterone secretion from the corpus luteum
  112. Areas where laminar flow is disrupted
    • Branching points of arteries (i.e. brain, coronary, carotid)
    • High risk areas for blood clots to form
  113. What percentage of people who develop cardiogenic shock do not survive?
    70%
  114. Nutrient absorption occurs primarily in the
    Small intestine
  115. As food is chemically digested, it is also absorbed through the ____ ____. The small intestine has ____ that contain blood vessels. The nutrients move through the ____ ___ and into the _____ ____ to be carried to the body's cells.
    • intestine walls
    • villi
    • mucosal layer 
    • blood vessels
  116. What stimulates release of secretin and what is it eventually released by?
    • Release stimulated by acid and fat 
    • released by S cells in the small intestine
  117. What does secretin secrete/release?
    What does it inhibit?
    • Secretes pepsin and releases pancreatic bicarbonate
    • Inhibits gastric acid secretion
  118. A hormone that exhibits some sort of control over the digestive system
    Secretin
  119. What does luteinizing hormone (LH) cause in males?
    Stimulates release/ production of testosterone by leydig cells
  120. During myogenic regulation of glomerular filtration rate, an increase in mean arterial pressure will _____
    cause the afferent arterioles to constrict and thereby maintain a relatively constant glomerular filtration pressure
  121. Symptoms of low plasma pH may include:
    • CNS depression
    • Generalized weakness
    • Deranged CNS function 
    • Severe: disorientation, coma or death
  122. Once the chyme begins to enter the duodenum, it must first be _____ before any of the enzymes in the pancreatic juices can be activated.
    Neutralized or deacidified
  123. The pancreas secretes ______ in order to neutralize the very acidic chyme
    bicarbonate
  124. When a B cell contacts a foreign or abnormal antigen, it develops into a ________ that releases________.
    • plasma cell
    • antibodies
  125. The body's nonspecific defenses against pathogens
    • inflammation
    • interferons
    • natural killer cells
    • complement system
  126. Which is NOT one of the body's nonspecific defenses against pathogens?
    cytotoxic T cell
  127. In the end, the complement system destroys invading bacteria by ________.
    forming a membrane attack complex
  128. Why is a secondary immune response stronger?
    Memory cells produced during the primary response lead to a rapid proliferation of effector cells on subsequent exposure to the antigen.
  129. Activation of a B cell by an antigen results in its proliferation and differentiation into ________,which secrete the antibodies that attack the antigen.
    plasma cells
  130. The ________ protein on the cytotoxic T cell binds to the ________ major histocompatibility(MHC) molecule on the infected cell.
    • CD8
    • Class I
Author
chikeokjr
ID
322912
Card Set
Physiology Exam
Description
Physiology Exam
Updated