Statistics terms

  1. Statistics
    Science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analyzing information to draw conclusion or answer questions.
  2. Stages of statistics
    • 1 Collect.
    • 2 Analize.
    • 3 Draw a conclusion or answer.
  3. Types of statistics
    • 1 Descriptive.
    • 2 Inferential.
  4. Descriptive statistics:
    It consist of organizing and summarizing data using table graph or simple calculation
  5. Inferential:
    It uses methods that take a result from a sample extend of population and measure the reliability of the results.
  6. Population:
    Is the entire group.
  7. Sample:
    is a subgroup of from the population.
  8. Parameter:
    Numerical value used to describe population.
  9. Statistic:
    Numerical value used for a sample.
  10. Quantitative data:
    Numerical data.

    • 1 discrete
    • 2 continuous.
  11. Qualitative data:
    Descriptive data/
  12. Discrete:
    Numbers can be counted

    Ex: 45 students
  13. Continuous:
    Numbers can not be counted:

    • Ex: - 355 ml coke can.
    •       - 10:00 am
  14. Levels of measurement:
    • 1 Nominal.
    • 2 Ordinal.
    • 3 Interval.
    • 4 Ratio.
  15. Nominal:
    Measurements are names, labels, or categorical data.

    • As addition: There is no ordering system.
    • EX: Quiz, HW, Final. (order doesnt matter, once added, give same result)
  16. Ordinal:
    • Names, labels, (similar as ordinal. Difference is: Names have no mathematical difference)
    • EX: S (small), M (Medium), L (large).
  17. Interval:
    Numbers. difference has a meaning

    as addition: Zero is not a natural starting point.

    EX: Temperature, elevation.
  18. Observation study:
    It measures the value of the response variable without attempting to influence the value of either the response or explanatory values. (Only observes, gathers data)
  19. Experiment study:
    A research assigns the individuals in a study to a certain group, Intentionally changes the value of the explanatory value, and then records the value of response. (Do a lab, then records the change)
  20. Random sample:
    (chance varies)
    The process of using chance to select an individual from a population to ve included in a sample. (pick one by one)
  21. Simple random sample: 
    (Always same chance, group)
    A sample of size "n" from a population size "N" is obtained through simple random sample if every possible sample size "n" has an equal chance of being selected.
  22. Other effective methods of sampling:
    • 1 convenience sample.
    • 2 Systematic.
    • 3 Stratified.
    • 4 Cluster.
  23. Convenience sample:
    Individuals are easily obtained.
  24. Systematic sample:
    Select every kth individuals from a population

    Ex: HW 1.1- Do 1-100 every odd
  25. Stratified sample:
    Separate population into non-overlaping groups then obtain samples from each group.
  26. Cluster sample:
    Obtain samples by selecting all samples from a selected group.
  27. Stratified         VS        Cluster
    • 1.- Divide population into some groups
    • 2.- Pick all groups       l   2.- pick some groups
    • 3.- Pick some samples l  3.- pick all samples
Card Set
Statistics terms