Bio ch 1-6

  1. Biology can be described as
    the scientific study of life
  2. science can be described as
    an approach to understanding the natural world that is based on inquiry
  3. Discovery science...
    Hypothesis driven science...
    • describes nature
    • explains nature
  4. data is
    recorded observations
  5. verifiable observations and measurements are the data of
    discovery science
  6. formal process of inquiry
    scientific method
  7. the scientific method is as follows;
    • observation
    • question
    • hypothesis 
    • prediction
    • experiment
    • conclusion
  8. a hypothesis is a
    tentative answer to a question or a proposed explanation for a set of observations
  9. facts are
    verifiable observations and a repeatable experimental results, and the prerequisites of science
  10. a scientific theory is
    a comprehensive explanation support by abundant evidence
  11. life is recognized when the specimen under observation shows
    • order
    • regulation
    • growth and development
    • response to environment
    • reproduction
    • evolution (lol)
  12. biosignatures
    substances that provide evidence of past or present life
  13. all named/ identified species include
    • 290,000 plants
    • 52,000 vertebrates
    • 1,000,000 insects
  14. a species is
    a group of organisms that live in the same place and time and have the potential to reproduce
  15. taxonomy
    the branch of biology that names and classifies species and arranges them into a hierarchy of broad groups
  16. the three domains of life are
    • bateria
    • archaea
    • Eukarya
  17. bacteria and archaea have...cells
    eukarya have...cells
    • prokaryotic
    • eukaryotic
  18. the domain eukarya has three divisions called kingdoms, they are...
    • plantae (photosynthesis)
    • fungi (decomposers)
    • animalia (ingesting and digesting)
  19. eukaryotes that don't fit into any of the 3 kingdoms are deemed
    protists (single celled)
  20. five unifying themes will serve as touchstones throughout the investigation of biology
    • evolution (lol)
    • structure/function
    • information flow
    • energy transformations
    • interconnections within systems
  21. evolution is (ridiculous)
    but fo'real by "scientific definition" is
    the fundamental principle of life and the core thee that unifies biology
  22. Good ol' Charles Darwin wrote a book called...
    his two mains points were...
    for which natural selection was the mechanism
    • it was garbage, but he called it "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection'
    • unity (descent)
    • diversity (modification)
  23. artificial selection is
    the purposeful breeding of domesticated plants and animals by humans
  24. the mustard seed is the "ancestor" of
    • cabbage
    • brussel sprouts
    • kohlrabi
    • kale
    • broccoli
    • cauliflower
  25. for life's functions to proceed in an orderly manner, info has to be
    • stored
    • transmitted
    • used
  26. genes are defined as
    the units of inheritance that transmit info from parent to offspring
  27. The "Language of Life" has an alphabet of 4 letters; AKA the building blocks of DNA
  28. the entire set of genetic information that an organism inherits is called its
  29. life is made possible by
    • the input of energy (mostly from the sun)
    • and the transformation of energy from one form to another
  30. plants and other photosynthetic organisms are called produces "producers" bc they
    capture the energy that enters an ecosystem as sunlight and convert it, then store it as chemical bonds within sugars and other complex molecules
  31. chemical energy is passed through a series of "consumers" that
    break the bonds which releases the stored energy and puts it to use
  32. energy enters as ... and exits as ...
    • light (Yagami? lol)
    • heat
  33. everything, living or nah is composed of...
  34. a vast network of chemical reactions that continually converts energy from one form to another as matter is recylced
  35. The Biosphere consists of...
    Earth's soil, oceans, lakes, other bodies of water, and the lower atmosphere
  36. anything that occupies space and has mass
  37. measure of the amount of material in n object
  38. substance that can't be broken down into other substances by chemical reactions
  39. the four elements that make up about 96% of the weight of the body
    • oxygen
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • nitrogen
  40. trace elements are
    • required in small amounts
    • essential for life
  41. compounds
    substances that contain two or more elements in a fixed ratio
  42. an atom is
    the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
  43. charges of
    • positive
    • negative
    • neutral
  44. the atomic number is
    the number of protons in an atom
  45. the mass number is
    the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
  46. atomic mass is
    close to mass number but differs slightly because it represents an average
  47. isotopes are
    alternate mass forms of an element
  48. radioactive isotope is
    the nucleus decays spontaneously
  49. ionic bonds form between
    oppositely charged ions
  50. a covalent bond forms when
    two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
  51. what kind of molecule is water
    polar- uneven distribution of charge
  52. weak attractions between water molecules are called
    hydrogen bonds
  53. molecules of the same kind stick together
  54. a solution is
    a liquid consisting of a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
  55. when water is the solvent the result is an
    aqueous solution
  56. pH scale ranges from
    • most acidic 0
    • to most basic 14
  57. substances that minimize changes in pH
Card Set
Bio ch 1-6
biology ch 1 and 2