What are 4 types of Carbohydrates?
- Monosaccharides 1 sugar unit
- Diasaccharides 2 sugar units
- Oligosaccharides 3-10 sugar units
- polysaccharides 10+ sugar units
Example of Monosaccharides?
Example of Disaccharides?
Example of Oligosaccharides?
Example of Polysaccharides?
Polysaccharides consist of what kind of Bonds?
Alpha Bonds: Can be digested by human enzymes.
Beta Bonds: Can NOT be digested by human enzyme. (except Lactose)
What are Alpha and Beta bond similarities?
- Are both Polysaccharides
- Consist of glucose as a building unit (monomer)
What 2 monosaccharides create Sucrose (table Sugar)?
Glucose + Fructose
What 2 monosaccharides create Lactose (Milk Sugar)?
Glucose + Galactose
What 2 monosaccharides create Maltose (Malt Sugar)?
Glucose + Glucose
What are three common Lipid Structures?
What is the Function of Triglycerides?
- To Reserve energy
- 1 glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids
What is the function of Phospholipids?
- Major component of the cell membrane
- 1 phosphate grp + 1 glycerol + 2 Fatty acids
What is the function of Sterols?
- To create:
- Steroid hormone
- vitamin D
What are the 4 levels of protein structure?
- Primary : chain
- Secondary : a-helix Spiral
- Tertiary : folding of the spiral
- Quaternary : 2 or more folding spirals start grouping together
What are the 2 different types in secondary structure of protein?
A helix = 4 residues apart
b-pleated sheet = further apart
What disease is associated with Lysosome Disorder?
Tay-Sachs Disease: Lysosomal enzymes are less effective than normal and fail to break down lipids.
Function: Maintains boundary of cell and integrity of cell structure
Function: DNA storage
Function: rRNA synthesis
Function: Cell metabolism and storage (inside cell all over)
RER = Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Function: Lipid Synthesis
SER: Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Function: Packaging and sorting proteins
Function: ATP synthesis
Function: Contains enzymes for breakdown of cellular and extracellular debris (cell recycling bin)
Function: Breakdown of toxic substance, including hydrogen peroxide (cell trash can)
Function: Translate mRNA into protein
Function: Direction of mitotic spindle development during cell division
Structure support of cell
What are 3 types of cell junctions?
Where can tight junction be found and what protein is used?
Epithelial Tissues / Occludins
Where can gap junction be found and what protein is used?
- Smooth muscle and heart muscle / Connexons
- Allow muscle cells to contract
Where can desmosomes be found and what protein is used?
Tissues subject to mechanical stress ex: heart, uterus, and skin / Cadherin
- Interphase (non-division,resting period)
- Mitosis (Cell division)
Steps in Interphase
- G0 - Nothinng is happening
- G1 - Increase protein synthesis
- S - DNA duplication
- G2 - Rapid protein synthesis
Steps in Mitosis
- Prophase : Chromosomes become visible
- Prometaphase : Nuclear envelope disappears;centrioles move to opposite ends of cell
- Metaphase: Chromosomes are aligned in the middle of cell
- Anaphase : chromatide pairs separate
- Telophase : New nuclear envelope develops
What is the Difference between DNA & RNA?
Sugar : DNA (Deoxyribose) / RNA (Ribose)
Base: DNA (A_T, G_C) / RNA (A_U, G_C)
Strand: DNA (Double Strand) / RNA (Single Strand)
What type of bond links DNA to amino acid
Function: Duplicate more DNA for cell division
Function: Process of changing from DNA to RNA
Function: Process of changing from RNA to Protien
Funtion: Carrier of the coded info from DNA to the rest of the cells
Function: A major component in Ribosome for protein synthesis
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Function: Help transfer the amino acid to polypeptide chain during protein synthesis
transfer RNA (tRNA)
What is the code for the start codon?
AUG - Methionine
What are the three steps in translation?
- Initiation:Formation of mRNA, Ribosome, tRNA complex
- Elongation:joining of amino acids for polypeptide chain
- Termination:Dissemble of mRNA,Ribosome, tRNA complex
What is the leader sequence?
Located at the beginning of the polypeptide chain. Determines the destination (address)
Post translation modification refers to...
- Modification by
- Removal of the leader sequence (address)
- adding lipids and/or carbohydrate
- removing excess amino acids