Physio Ch2

  1. What are 4 types of Carbohydrates?
    • Monosaccharides 1 sugar unit 
    • Diasaccharides 2 sugar units 
    • Oligosaccharides 3-10 sugar units 
    • polysaccharides 10+ sugar units
  2. Example of Monosaccharides?
    • Glucose
    • Galactose 
    • Fructose
  3. Example of Disaccharides?
    • Lactose
    • Maltose 
    • Sucrose
  4. Example of Oligosaccharides?
    • Beans 
    • Lentiles
  5. Example of Polysaccharides?
    • Starch 
    • Glycogen 
    • Cellulose
  6. Polysaccharides consist of what kind of Bonds?
    Alpha Bonds: Can  be digested by human enzymes.

    Beta Bonds: Can NOT be digested by human enzyme. (except Lactose)
  7. What are Alpha and Beta bond similarities?
    • Are both Polysaccharides
    • Consist of glucose as a building unit (monomer)
  8. What 2 monosaccharides create Sucrose (table Sugar)?
    Glucose + Fructose
  9. What 2 monosaccharides create Lactose (Milk Sugar)?
    Glucose + Galactose
  10. What 2 monosaccharides create Maltose (Malt Sugar)?
    Glucose + Glucose
  11. What are three common Lipid Structures?
    • Triglyceride
    • Phospholipid
    • Sterol
  12. What is the Function of Triglycerides?
    • To Reserve energy 
    • 1 glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids
  13. What is the function of Phospholipids?
    • Major component of the cell membrane 
    • 1 phosphate grp + 1 glycerol + 2 Fatty acids
  14. What is the function of Sterols?
    • To create:
    • bile 
    • Steroid hormone
    • vitamin D
  15. What are the 4 levels of protein structure?
    • Primary : chain 
    • Secondary : a-helix Spiral 
    • Tertiary : folding of the spiral 
    • Quaternary : 2 or more folding spirals start grouping together
  16. What are the 2 different types in secondary structure of protein?
    A helix = 4 residues apart 

    b-pleated sheet = further apart
  17. What disease is associated with Lysosome Disorder?
    Tay-Sachs Disease: Lysosomal enzymes are less effective than normal and fail to break down lipids.
  18. Function: Maintains boundary of cell and integrity of cell structure
    Plasma membrane
  19. Function: DNA storage
  20. Function: rRNA synthesis
  21. Function: Cell metabolism and storage (inside cell all over)
  22. Function:Protein Synthesis
    RER = Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
  23. Function: Lipid Synthesis
    SER:  Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
  24. Function: Packaging and sorting proteins
  25. Function: ATP synthesis
  26. Function: Contains enzymes for breakdown of cellular and extracellular debris (cell recycling bin)
  27. Function: Breakdown of toxic substance, including hydrogen peroxide (cell  trash can)
  28. Function: Translate mRNA into protein
  29. Function: Direction of mitotic spindle development during cell division
  30. Structure support of cell
  31. What are 3 types of cell junctions?
    • Tight = 
    • Gap 
    • Desmosome
  32. Where can tight junction be found and what protein is used?
    Epithelial Tissues / Occludins
  33. Where can gap junction be found and what protein is used?
    • Smooth muscle and heart muscle / Connexons
    • Allow muscle cells to contract
  34. Where can desmosomes be found and what protein is used?
    Tissues subject to mechanical stress ex: heart, uterus, and skin / Cadherin
  35. Cell Cycle
    • Interphase (non-division,resting period)
    • Mitosis (Cell division)
  36. Steps in Interphase
    • G0 - Nothinng is happening 
    • G1 - Increase protein synthesis 
    • S - DNA duplication 
    • G2 - Rapid protein synthesis
  37. Steps in Mitosis
    • Prophase : Chromosomes become visible 
    • Prometaphase : Nuclear envelope disappears;centrioles move to opposite ends of cell
    • Metaphase: Chromosomes are aligned in the middle of cell 
    • Anaphase : chromatide pairs separate
    • Telophase : New nuclear envelope develops
  38. What is the Difference between DNA & RNA?
    Sugar : DNA (Deoxyribose) / RNA (Ribose)

    Base: DNA (A_T, G_C) / RNA (A_U, G_C)

    Strand: DNA (Double Strand) / RNA (Single Strand)
  39. What type of bond links DNA to amino acid
    Phosphodiester bond
  40. Function: Duplicate more DNA for cell division
    DNA replication
  41. Function: Process of changing from DNA to RNA
  42. Function: Process of changing from RNA to Protien
  43. Funtion: Carrier of the coded info from DNA to the rest of the cells
    messengerRNA (mRNA)
  44. Function: A major component in Ribosome for protein synthesis
    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
  45. Function: Help transfer the amino acid to polypeptide chain during protein synthesis
    transfer RNA (tRNA)
  46. What is the code for the start codon?
    AUG - Methionine
  47. What are the three steps in translation?
    • Initiation:Formation of mRNA, Ribosome, tRNA complex 
    • Elongation:joining of amino acids for polypeptide chain  
    • Termination:Dissemble of mRNA,Ribosome, tRNA complex
  48. What is the leader sequence?
    Located at the beginning of the polypeptide chain. Determines the destination (address)
  49. Post translation modification refers to...
    • Modification by 
    • Removal of the leader sequence (address)
    • adding lipids and/or carbohydrate 
    • removing excess amino acids
Card Set
Physio Ch2
Cell Structure and Function