1. Anorexia
    lack or loss of appetite for food
  2. Anorexia nervosa
    eating disorder characterized by the denial of appetite and bizarre eating habits
  3. Anthropometric
    measurements of the body and body parts
  4. Basal metabolism
    amount of energy required to carry out involuntary activities of the body at rest
  5. Body mass index
    ratio of height to weight
  6. Bulimia
    eating disorder characterized by episodes of gorging followed by purging; often occurs in conjunction with anorexia nervosa
  7. Calorie
    measure of heat, or energy; kilocalorie, commonly referred to as a calorie, defined as the amount of heat required to raise 1 kg of water 1°C
  8. Carbohydrate
    organic compounds (commonly known as sugars and starches) that are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; the most abundant and least expensive source of calories in the diet worldwide
  9. Clear liquid diet
    diet that contains only foods that are clear liquids at room or body temperature—gelatin, fat-free broth, bouillon, ice pops, clear juices, carbonated beverages, regular and decaffeinated coffee and tea
  10. Enteral nutrition
    alternate form of feeding that involves passing a tube into the gastrointestinal tract to allow instillation of the appropriate formula
  11. Full liquid diet
    diet that contains milk, plain frozen desserts, pasteurized eggs, cereal gruels, and milk and egg substitutes in addition to clear liquids; contains liquids that can be poured at room temperature
  12. Gastrostomy
    (PEG) or a surgically (open or laparoscopically) placed tube
  13. Ketosis
    an abnormal accumulation of ketone bodies that is frequently associated with acidosis
  14. Lipid
    group name for fatty substances, including fats, oils, waxes, and related compounds
  15. Minerals
    inorganic elements found in nature
  16. Nasogastric tube(NG)
    tube inserted through the nose and into the stomach
  17. Nasointestinal tube(NI)
    tube inserted through the nose and into the upper portion of the small intestine
  18. NPO
    nothing by mouth
  19. Nutrient
    specific biochemical substance used by the body for growth, development, activity, reproduction, lactation, health maintenance, and recovery from illness
  20. Nutrition
    • study of the nutrients and how they are handled by the body, as well as the impact of human behavior and environment on the process of nourishment
    • or injury
  21. Obesity
    weight greater than 20% above ideal body weight
  22. Parenteral
    outside of intestines or alimentary canal; popularly used to refer to injection routes
  23. Parenteral nutrition
    the administration of nutritional support via the intravenous route. Patients who can't meet their nutritional needs by the oral or enteral routes may require intravenous nutritional supplementation. Intravenous supplementation may be prescribed for patients who have nonfunctional gastrointestinal (GI) tracts, who are comatose, or those who have high caloric and nutritional needs due to illness or injury;
  24. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube (PEG)
    surgically or laparoscopically placed gastrostomy tube
  25. Peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN)
    prescribed for patients who require nutrient supplementation through a peripheral vein because they have an inadequate intake of oral feedings
  26. Protein
    vital component of every living cell; composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
  27. Recommended dietary allowance (RDA)
    refers to recommendations for average daily amounts that healthy population groups should consume over time
  28. Residual
    feeding remaining in the stomach
  29. Soft diet
    regular diet that has been modified to eliminate foods that are hard to digest and to chew, including those that are high in fiber, high in fat, and highly seasoned
  30. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
    nutritional therapy that bypasses the gastrointestinal tract for patients who are unable to take food orally; meets the patient's nutritional needs by way of nutrient-filled solutions administered intravenously through a central vein
  31. Trans fat
    fat that occurs when manufacturers partially hydrogenate liquid oils so that they become more solid and stable; trans fat raises serum cholesterol
  32. Triglycerides
    predominant form of fat in food and the major storage form of fat in the body; composed of one glyceride molecule and three fatty acids
  33. Vitamins
    organic substances needed by the body in small amounts to help regulate body processes; are susceptible to oxidation and destruction
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