What is the prime mover, antagonist and stabilizers for the bench press?
- Pectoralis Major (middle and upper fibers emphasized). Rhomboids, Trapezius,
- Posterior Deltoid. Rotator Cuff Musculature: Supraspinatus, Infaspinatus, Teres
- Minor, Subscapularis.
What causes post exercise soreness and what do you do about it?
Microtrauma to the muscle tissue. PRICE, light stretching or active rest and hydrate.
What is the definition of OBLA?
Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation.
What is the Valsalva Maneuver?
Exhaling forcibly with the glottis closed.
Define reciprocal inhibition.
- When an agonist or prime mover is called upon to perform a desired motion, the
- antagonist are neurologically inhibited.
What body type is characterized by a muscular build?
Define Visceral or smooth muscles.
- Visceral or smooth muscles operate blood vessels and tubular organs such as the
- stomach and uterus. Smooth muscle gets its name because there are no striations
- visible in them. Smooth muscle is autonomous or doesn’t require conscious thought
- to be stimulated.
How many calories are in: One gram of fat: One gram of carbohydrates: One gram of
protein: One gram of vitamins:
9, 4, 4, 0
The essential Amino Acids are:
- Phenylalanine, Valine, Threonine, Methionine, Tryptophan, Histidine, Isoleucine,
- Leucine, Lysine
Define basal metabolic rate.
- BMR is the amount of energy expended to support the ongoing metabolic work of the
- body’s cells at rest.
What is the Institute of Medicine's recommended intake of carbohydrates, proteins
45-65% carbohydrates, 10-35% protein, 20-35% fat.
Give an example of a saturated fat
Any fat that is solid at room temperature and/or palm and coconut oil.
According to the Food Guide Pyramid which category of foods offer high-quality protein?
What is ballistic stretching?
Uncontrolled bouncing, jerking, bobbing or pulsing to achieve greater ROM.
What can you do to increase the efficiency in the process of reciprocal innervation?
A good warm up.
What sensory receptor activates the stretch reflex mechanism?
Define the term elastic
The ability to return back to their original shape.
What percent of body fat for men and women is considered obese?
Men 25% and Women 32%.
What are some recommendation you might make to a client with osteoporosis?
- Avoid high impact aerobics, uncontrolled spinal flexion, decrease caffeine intake,
- increase weight bearing activities and insure and adequate intake of calcium and
- vitamin D.
When training a client with AIDS/HIV, why is it important to wash your hands?
To protect them from being exposed to other infections
Are sit ups a recommended exercise for a pregnant woman in her second trimester?
Diastasis is the separation of the rectus abdominis muscle.
Considerations when training someone with AIDS/HIV include:
Washing your hands to protect the client from exposure to other infections.
When training a client with osteoporosis, is it better to perform weight-bearing or non
Define a sesamoid bone.
- A short bone embedded within a tendon or joint capsule. An example would be the
- bones found in the base of the first metatarsal in the foot, or of course the largest
- example would be the patella.
Give an example of a Class II lever system.
A wheel barrow, can opener or the MTP joint in plantar flexion.
What is a Q angle?
- Is formed by the longitudinal axis of the femur and the line of pull of the patellar
What is a Carrying Angle?
The angle formed between the humerus and the forearm.
What is the normal range of motion in shoulder flexion?
What are the prime movers in a leg press?
Vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius and rectus femoris.
Define the term volume.
- Volume can be measured by the total amount of work performed in a training
- session. This can be measured by the amount of repetitions completed or the total
- amount of weight lifted. This can be measured by each set, workout, day, week,
- month etc.
A normal blood pressure reading is:
The stretch shortening cycle is the sequence of:
Eccentric action followed by a concentric action.
Force times distance divided by time equals? (F x D÷T=)?
Dividing the body weight in kilograms by the height in meters squared (kg/m2)
Body Max Index (BMI).
A BMI measurement of 32 may be considered:
Class 1 obesity.
What is the metronome setting for the 3-minute step test?
How many beats per minute should you set the metronome at for the YMCA 3-minute
96 beats per minute (bpm).
Subcutaneous fat levels in individuals are affected by:
Gender, body type, age and activity levels.
What is the treatment for an epileptic seizure?
- Remove objects that might injure them. Protect their head. Do not place your finger,
- hand or hard object between their teeth. Don’t restrain, slap or douse them with
- water. Once the seizure has ended move them to a comfortable place
What are signs of heat exhaustion?
Pale, clammy skin, rapid weak pulse, weakness, headache or nausea.
True or False? When someone suffers from an epileptic seizure you should place a hard
object between the person’s teeth.
How many minutes should you arrive before your training appointment and what
should you do when you get there?
10 - 15 minutes.
What are the five most important points to look for on a client profile?
Goals, Experience, Medical History, Career or Job and Signature.
How often should you call back your intros?
At least once.
What is the most important aspect to focus on when trying to sell services to a potential
What is Plycometrics
also known as "jump training" or "plyos", are exercises in which muscles exert maximum force in short intervals of time, with the goal of increasing power (speed-strength).
Symptoms: Gazing eyes, blank stare, altered
level of consciousness, violent contractions
- Treatment: Do not restrain. Do not slap! Do
- not douse with water. Do not place a finger or
- hard object between the teeth. Remove objects
- that might injure patient (protect their head).
- When seizure has ended, remove patient to a
- comfortable place.
Strain (Trauma to Muscle or Tendon)
Symptoms: Discoloration, swelling, soreness,
Treatment: P. R. I. C. E.
How long to warm up?
- Be careful:
- excessive exercise is not necessarily better. Moderate
- intensities are recommended; a full body routine
- focusing on the large muscle groups with 2-3 sets of
- 10-12 repetitions, 2-3 days a week
- Cardiovascular exercise is excellent,
- especially cycling and water exercises, because they
- put less stress on the joints.
Horizontal Leg Press
- Agonist: Quadriceps muscle group: Rectus
- Femoris, Vastus Intermedius, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus
- Antagonist: H a m s t r i n g s m u s c l e g r o u p :
- Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, Biceps
- Agonist: Quadriceps muscle group: Rectus Femoris,
- Vastus Intermedius, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Medialis.
- Antagonist: Hamstrings muscle group:
- Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, Biceps
Tonic and Phasic
- Phasic muscles, on the other hand, have a tendency
- to become inhibited.
- long and weak,
- Tonic muscles are easily facilitated and will
- want to contribute to the movement with low levels
- of innervation
- It’s important to keep in mind their tendency to be
- tight when designing a training program.
- Active insufficiency occurs when a double-jointed
- muscle is recruited to work at both joints, causing an
- over-shortening of the muscle. An example would be
- to flex the wrist and flex the fingers at the same time. A
- sufficient contraction cannot occur because the finger
- flexors are shortened over both the flexed wrist and
- Passive insufficiency occurs when an inactive
- muscle at a joint is of insufficient length to permit full
- range of motion. An example would be the previous
- one, except note the finger extensors are lengthened
- over both the wrist and fingers and are preventing the
- full range of motion from being completed.
- Growth Hormone (GH)
- Secreted from the pituitary gland and made from
- over 190 amino acids, growth hormone may:
- • Increase protein synthesis
- • Increase fat breakdown
- • Increase collagen synthesis
- • Decrease glucose utilization
Most common lever system
3rd class lever
- 48 to 72 hours of rest are
- recommended between plyometric training sessions.
- Clients may perform two to four sessions a week,
- depending on the goal or sporting season.
- your client may have to rest 5-10 seconds
- between each effort and two to three minutes between
Ecto Long anguluar shape smaller longer bones narrows
meso more musculuar wider shoulders in relation to hips wrists and ankles are relatively large
endo thicker short thin necks
Target Hear rate
- (220 - AGE) × % = THR (Attainable heart
- rate), THR = Target Heart Rate
- (220 - AGE) - RHR (Resting heart rate) × %
- + RHR = THR (Karvonen Theorem based on
- heart rate reserve)
- (220 - Age) × % × 1.15 = THR (Target Heart
- MAX HR = 220 - AGE = MHR (age predicted
- max heart rate)
- it is a good idea to
- check insulin levels before and after exercise to avoid
- severe swings in blood glucose levels. These changes
- can appear for up to six hours after an exercise session..
- Decrease the insulin dosage (by 1 to 2 units as
- prescribed by the physician) or increase the
- carbohydrate intake (10 to 15 grams per one half
- hour of exercise) prior to an exercise bout.
The Inner Unit
- The muscles of the inner unit consist of the
- multifidus, transversus abdominis, diaphragm, and
- pelvic floor.
Largest sesamoid bone
- When working with loads under 60% of maximum,
- the rest periods should be approximately 45
- seconds to 2 minutes.6
Shoulder Extension: 40-60°
Shoulder Extension: 40-60°