Jean Inman - Domain I

  1. Cooking measurements in order smallest to largest
    • Teaspoon
    • Tablespoon
    • Cup
    • Pint
    • Quart
    • Gallon
  2. Pints per quart
    2 (4 cups)
  3. Quarts per gallon
    4 (16 cups)
  4. Cups in a pint
    2 (16 fluid ounces)
  5. Tablespoons per cup
    16 tbsp (8 ounces)
  6. Fruit and vegetable grades graded by:
  7. #10 can
    #/case and measurement/can
    • 6/case
    • 13 cups
  8. Main contributor to meat color
    Myoglobin --> mioglobin + oxygen -> red -> brown -> green
  9. Meat:
    Inspection (mandatory) and grading (voluntary) is graded by:
  10. Internal temperatures for meat and fish
  11. Internal temperatures for ground meats
  12. Internal temperature for poultry
  13. Temperature for roasting
  14. Types of dry heat cooking
    • Frying
    • Broiling
    • Roasting
    • Grilling
  15. Types of moist heat cooking
    • Braising
    • Simmer
    • Steam
    • Stewing
  16. Tender cuts of meat
    Loin, Sirloin
  17. Tough cuts of meat
    • Bottom round
    • Chuck
    • Brisket
  18. What is candling:
    Pass an egg in front of bright light to view contents -- grading of eggs.
  19. Creams in order based on most fat to least fat.
    • Heavy or thick
    • Medium
    • Whipped cream
    • Light or thin
    • Sour cream
    • Half and half
  20. Too much sugar in baked goods results in....
    • coarse cells
    • thick walls
    • shiny crust
    • crumbly product
  21. Examples of quick breads
    • muffins
    • biscuits
    • popovers
  22. Excess mixing of quick breads can lead to....
    • Loss of carbon dioxide - overdeveloped gluten
    • Tunnels from top to bottom - tough, heavy product
  23. Starch is composed of what molecules
    • Amylose
    • Amylopectin
  24. Thickening ability of starches -- in order of effectiveness
    • Potato
    • Waxy corn
    • Waxy rice
    • Waxy sorghum
    • Tapioca
    • Wheat
  25. The 3 domains of learning and their definitions
    • Cognitive - acquisition of knowledge or subject matter
    • Affective -acquisition of attitudes and values (feels)
    • Psychomotor - acquisition of muscular skills (exercise, food prep)
  26. Behavior modification methods
    • Positive reinforcement
    • Avoidance learning
    • Extinction (ignore)
  27. Communication principles:
    • Motivation
    • Involve learner
    • Establish rapport
    • Listening responses
    • Ability to empathize
  28. Listening response:
    Clarification definition
    Pose a question after an ambiguous client message; used to make previous message explicit
  29. Listening response:
    Active or reflective listening definition
    Paraphrase or repeat back what was just said
  30. Method of communication that is more formal and authoritative
    written communication
  31. Define gelatinization
    the swelling that occurs when starch is heated in water close to the boiling point
  32. What is a roux
    half fat, half flower -- white sauce
  33. Name the different crystal inhibitors during crystalization
    • Acid - cream of tarter, vinegar
    • Fat - chocolate, milk
    • Protein - milk, egg whites, gelatin
  34. What is overrun measuring
    The weight in ice cream due to an increase in volume from freezing and whipping
  35. Not adding enough fat in ice cream creates...
    a grainy ice cream with large crystals
  36. What decaffeinates coffee
    Methylene chloride
  37. Temperature to brew coffee:
    • 185*F - 203*F
    • if brewed at a higher temperature, tannin is extracted and coffee is bitter
  38. What company controls food additives
  39. What is proprionate
    Preservative; mold inhibitor
  40. The conventional foods: grape juice and red wine have what beneficial compound
  41. The conventional food: fatty fish has what beneficial compound
    Omega 3 fatty acids which reduce TG levels
  42. The conventional food: tomatoes has what beneficial compound
  43. The modified food: such as fermented dairy products have what beneficial compound
  44. Fortified margarines (modified food) contains what beneficial compound
    Plant sterols and stanol esters
  45. What are thiols
    Sulfur containing phytochemicals
  46. What foods are thiols founds
    Garlic, onions, and cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower...)
  47. Thiols play a role in...
    Detoxification of carcinogens (a substance capable of causing cancer in living tissue)
  48. What is food synergy?
    The additive influence of foods and constituents which, when eaten, have a beneficial effects on health
  49. Distance for personal zone
    18" - 4'
  50. Develop goals and objective based on...
    assessment of client knowledge
  51. Keep reading level materials on what grade level
    • 8th - general population
    • 6th - lower literacy
  52. What is the SMOG index?
    • procedure for determining readability -- finds the average # of polysyllabic words
    • gives grade level
  53. Why is gelatin an incomplete protein?
    • No tryptophan
    • Low in methionine and lysine
  54. Define nutritional informatics
    • Intersection between nutrition, information and technology
    • Use of technology in spreading information
  55. What is synergy and why is it important
    • conclusion of a group
    • the groups product (decision) is superior to what the most resourceful individual within the group could have produced by working alone
  56. Formative evaluation --
    • made during course of education
    • frequent feedback
  57. Summative evaluation --
    • designed at planning stage but conducted at the end.
    • post-test
  58. Steps for interviewing
    • Preparation
    • Build rapport
    • Collect data
    • Closing
  59. Types of formal evaluation strategies:
    • Objective test: right or wrong
    • - not well-suited for clinic or communication setting
    • Performance test: asked to complete task based on learning objectives
  60. Informal evaluation strategies --
    unstructured observation of food selection and behaviors
  61. Nonverbal communications
    • Kinesics: physical communication
    • - arms folded, eye contact
    • Paralinguistic: how client's message is delivered
    • - hesitations, whispering
    • Proxemics: personal space
    • - moves away, sets behind an object
  62. How to deal with negative non-verbal communication
    confront behavior
  63. Counselor's response to client: "If you eat too much ice cream, I suggest you stop buying it."
  64. Counselor's resonse to client: "Maybe you are not losing weight because you are not trying hard enough."
  65. Counselor's resone to client: "Don't worry about making changes.. it just takes time."
  66. Counselor's responses to client: "Can you tell me about that?"
  67. Counselor's response to client: "You seem to be saying that you are feeling..."
  68. Goal for motivational interviewing
    increase motivation so that clients are able to express the rationale for the changes that need to be made.
  69. What is OARS used for and its acronym stands for
    • Motivational Interviewing
    • Open-ended questions
    • Affirmations
    • Reflective listening
    • Summaries
  70. What does the stages of change model determine
    client current stage of change
  71. Steps in research
    • Identify a releant and important topic -- other research
    • Develop well-considered research question (who, what, how)
    • Research question leads to a hypothesis
    • Prepare research protocol-- methodology to solve the problem
    • Organize methods and materials
    • Collect and analyze data
    • Study results and make decisions
  72. What does a well-developed research question consist of
    • (who, what, how)
    • Clear, simple statement in a few words, in a complete grammatical statement
  73. Research report:
    Condensation of final report --

    - What all does this section contain?
    • Abstract
    • Purpose of the study, question asked, scope and method, summary of conclusions
  74. Research report:
    Specific lab, clinical, objective or subjective findings
  75. Research report:
    Interpretation of results, comparison with other studies
  76. Research report:
    How the information might be applied in practice
  77. Descriptive research --
    • Describes state of nature at a point in time
    • Generates hypothesis regarding determinants of a condition or disease
  78. Types of descriptive research
    • Qualitative research
    • Case report, case study
    • Survey
  79. Define survey
    Research designed to describe and quantify characteristics of a defined population; defined time frame; pinpoints problems
  80. Define analytical research
    Tests hypothesis concerning the effects of specific factors of interest and allows casual associations to be determined (can prove cause and effect)
  81. Types of analytical research
    • Experimental model
    • Quasi - experimental design
    • Cohort studies
    • Case control studies
    • Cross-sectional studies
  82. Experimental model uses....
    Experimental or control groups
  83. Quasi-experimental design uses...
    • No control group
    • Time series - before the program begins and after the program ends
    • Noteworthy change
  84. Define cohort
    a group whose members have something in common
  85. Cohort of healthy people...
    followed through time to see if they develop a specific disease
  86. Cohort studies are sometimes called...
    incidence studies tracking the frequency of new cases (newly diagnosed) of a disease
  87. Cross-sectional studies are sometimes called...
    Prevalence study - all of the cases of a specific disease among a group of people in a specific time
  88. Research with one time data collection
    Cross-sectional studies
  89. Define relevance or validity
    ability to measure phenomenon it intends to measure
  90. Internal validity --
    test whether the difference between the two groups is real (has the experimental group really performed differently)
  91. External validity --
    tests whether or not a generalization can be made from the study to a larger population
  92. Analysis of variance tool
    • ANOVA - tool used to evaluate validity 
    • Used when several products compete against each other
  93. Reliability --
    consistency or reproducible of test results
  94. Research:
    Sensitivity --
    proportion of afflicted individuals who test positive
  95. Nominal variables --
    • variables that fit into a category with no special order
    • (gender, race, marital status, present or absent)
  96. Rank order variables --
    • (ordinal scale)
    • observations compared with each other and put in order (best to worst, 1-4)
  97. Dependent variables are...
  98. Independent variables are...
    what you manipulate in your study
  99. Independent vs. Dependent
    Treatments for diseases are...
    • Independent variables
    • (you can change the treatment to affect the disease)
  100. Independent vs. Dependent
    - Effect cholesterol levels (____) have on heart attacts (____)
    • Independent
    • Dependent
  101. Research:
    Measures of dispersion --
    how values are distributed about the mean
  102. Standard deviation--
    indicates degree of dispersion about the mean value of a distribution
  103. About ______ of all observations in a normal distribution lie within 1 standard deviation of the mean
    2/3 (68%)
  104. Distance between the mean and the point of infection on either side is...
    equal to the standard deviation
  105. Image Upload 1
    • 1) Slope (mean)
    • 2) Point of inflection
  106. Perfect positive correlation:
    +1.0 (upwards to right)
  107. Perfect negative correlation:
    -1.0 (upwards to left)
  108. *Above 1 correlation coefficient is a ____ valid result
  109. # for significant difference, results are reliable
    P ≤ 0.05
Card Set
Jean Inman - Domain I
Principles of Dietetics - 19%