Cooking measurements in order smallest to largest
Pints per quart
2 (4 cups)
Quarts per gallon
4 (16 cups)
Cups in a pint
2 (16 fluid ounces)
Tablespoons per cup
16 tbsp (8 ounces)
Fruit and vegetable grades graded by:
#/case and measurement/can
Main contributor to meat color
Myoglobin --> mioglobin + oxygen -> red -> brown -> green
Inspection (mandatory) and grading (voluntary) is graded by:
Internal temperatures for meat and fish
Internal temperatures for ground meats
Internal temperature for poultry
Temperature for roasting
Types of dry heat cooking
Types of moist heat cooking
Tender cuts of meat
What is candling:
Pass an egg in front of bright light to view contents -- grading of eggs.
Creams in order based on most fat to least fat.
- Heavy or thick
- Whipped cream
- Light or thin
- Sour cream
- Half and half
Too much sugar in baked goods results in....
- coarse cells
- thick walls
- shiny crust
- crumbly product
Excess mixing of quick breads can lead to....
- Loss of carbon dioxide - overdeveloped gluten
- Tunnels from top to bottom - tough, heavy product
Starch is composed of what molecules
Thickening ability of starches -- in order of effectiveness
- Waxy corn
- Waxy rice
- Waxy sorghum
The 3 domains of learning and their definitions
- Cognitive - acquisition of knowledge or subject matter
- Affective -acquisition of attitudes and values (feels)
- Psychomotor - acquisition of muscular skills (exercise, food prep)
Behavior modification methods
- Positive reinforcement
- Avoidance learning
- Extinction (ignore)
- Involve learner
- Establish rapport
- Listening responses
- Ability to empathize
Pose a question after an ambiguous client message; used to make previous message explicit
Active or reflective listening definition
Paraphrase or repeat back what was just said
Method of communication that is more formal and authoritative
the swelling that occurs when starch is heated in water close to the boiling point
What is a roux
half fat, half flower -- white sauce
Name the different crystal inhibitors during crystalization
- Acid - cream of tarter, vinegar
- Fat - chocolate, milk
- Protein - milk, egg whites, gelatin
What is overrun measuring
The weight in ice cream due to an increase in volume from freezing and whipping
Not adding enough fat in ice cream creates...
a grainy ice cream with large crystals
What decaffeinates coffee
Temperature to brew coffee:
- 185*F - 203*F
- if brewed at a higher temperature, tannin is extracted and coffee is bitter
What company controls food additives
What is proprionate
Preservative; mold inhibitor
The conventional foods: grape juice and red wine have what beneficial compound
The conventional food: fatty fish has what beneficial compound
Omega 3 fatty acids which reduce TG levels
The conventional food: tomatoes has what beneficial compound
The modified food: such as fermented dairy products have what beneficial compound
Fortified margarines (modified food) contains what beneficial compound
Plant sterols and stanol esters
What are thiols
Sulfur containing phytochemicals
What foods are thiols founds
Garlic, onions, and cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower...)
Thiols play a role in...
Detoxification of carcinogens (a substance capable of causing cancer in living tissue)
What is food synergy?
The additive influence of foods and constituents which, when eaten, have a beneficial effects on health
Distance for personal zone
18" - 4'
Develop goals and objective based on...
assessment of client knowledge
Keep reading level materials on what grade level
- 8th - general population
- 6th - lower literacy
What is the SMOG index?
- procedure for determining readability -- finds the average # of polysyllabic words
- gives grade level
Why is gelatin an incomplete protein?
- No tryptophan
- Low in methionine and lysine
Define nutritional informatics
- Intersection between nutrition, information and technology
- Use of technology in spreading information
What is synergy and why is it important
- conclusion of a group
- the groups product (decision) is superior to what the most resourceful individual within the group could have produced by working alone
Formative evaluation --
- made during course of education
- frequent feedback
Summative evaluation --
- designed at planning stage but conducted at the end.
Steps for interviewing
- Build rapport
- Collect data
Types of formal evaluation strategies:
- Objective test: right or wrong
- - not well-suited for clinic or communication setting
- Performance test: asked to complete task based on learning objectives
Informal evaluation strategies --
unstructured observation of food selection and behaviors
- Kinesics: physical communication
- - arms folded, eye contact
- Paralinguistic: how client's message is delivered
- - hesitations, whispering
- Proxemics: personal space
- - moves away, sets behind an object
How to deal with negative non-verbal communication
Counselor's response to client: "If you eat too much ice cream, I suggest you stop buying it."
Counselor's resonse to client: "Maybe you are not losing weight because you are not trying hard enough."
Counselor's resone to client: "Don't worry about making changes.. it just takes time."
Counselor's responses to client: "Can you tell me about that?"
Counselor's response to client: "You seem to be saying that you are feeling..."
Goal for motivational interviewing
increase motivation so that clients are able to express the rationale for the changes that need to be made.
What is OARS used for and its acronym stands for
- Motivational Interviewing
- Open-ended questions
- Reflective listening
What does the stages of change model determine
client current stage of change
Steps in research
- Identify a releant and important topic -- other research
- Develop well-considered research question (who, what, how)
- Research question leads to a hypothesis
- Prepare research protocol-- methodology to solve the problem
- Organize methods and materials
- Collect and analyze data
- Study results and make decisions
What does a well-developed research question consist of
- (who, what, how)
- Clear, simple statement in a few words, in a complete grammatical statement
Condensation of final report --
- What all does this section contain?
- Purpose of the study, question asked, scope and method, summary of conclusions
Specific lab, clinical, objective or subjective findings
Interpretation of results, comparison with other studies
How the information might be applied in practice
Descriptive research --
- Describes state of nature at a point in time
- Generates hypothesis regarding determinants of a condition or disease
Types of descriptive research
- Qualitative research
- Case report, case study
Research designed to describe and quantify characteristics of a defined population; defined time frame; pinpoints problems
Define analytical research
Tests hypothesis concerning the effects of specific factors of interest and allows casual associations to be determined (can prove cause and effect)
Types of analytical research
- Experimental model
- Quasi - experimental design
- Cohort studies
- Case control studies
- Cross-sectional studies
Experimental model uses....
Experimental or control groups
Quasi-experimental design uses...
- No control group
- Time series - before the program begins and after the program ends
- Noteworthy change
a group whose members have something in common
Cohort of healthy people...
followed through time to see if they develop a specific disease
Cohort studies are sometimes called...
incidence studies tracking the frequency of new cases (newly diagnosed) of a disease
Cross-sectional studies are sometimes called...
Prevalence study - all of the cases of a specific disease among a group of people in a specific time
Research with one time data collection
Define relevance or validity
ability to measure phenomenon it intends to measure
Internal validity --
test whether the difference between the two groups is real (has the experimental group really performed differently)
External validity --
tests whether or not a generalization can be made from the study to a larger population
Analysis of variance tool
- ANOVA - tool used to evaluate validity
- Used when several products compete against each other
consistency or reproducible of test results
proportion of afflicted individuals who test positive
Nominal variables --
- variables that fit into a category with no special order
- (gender, race, marital status, present or absent)
Rank order variables --
- (ordinal scale)
- observations compared with each other and put in order (best to worst, 1-4)
Dependent variables are...
Independent variables are...
what you manipulate in your study
Independent vs. Dependent
Treatments for diseases are...
- Independent variables
- (you can change the treatment to affect the disease)
Independent vs. Dependent
- Effect cholesterol levels (____) have on heart attacts (____)
Measures of dispersion --
how values are distributed about the mean
indicates degree of dispersion about the mean value of a distribution
About ______ of all observations in a normal distribution lie within 1 standard deviation of the mean
Distance between the mean and the point of infection on either side is...
equal to the standard deviation
- 1) Slope (mean)
- 2) Point of inflection
Perfect positive correlation:
+1.0 (upwards to right)
Perfect negative correlation:
-1.0 (upwards to left)
*Above 1 correlation coefficient is a ____ valid result
# for significant difference, results are reliable
P ≤ 0.05