Renal System

  1. functions of renal system
    • Production of Urine
    • Indirect Regulation of Interstitial Fluid
    • Endocrine Function: (RBC production & regulation of bp)
    • Activation of Vitamin D
  2. Production of urine regulates plasma __
    • ionic composition
    • volume
    • osmolarity (solute concentration)
    • pH (H+ concentration)
  3. Plasma volume is regulated by __
    controlling water excretion (has a direct effect on blood pressure)
  4. Plasma osmolarity is regulated by __
    controlling the rate of water excretion, the kidneys regulate the concentration of solutes relative to water in the plasma
  5. metabolic waste products and foreign substances that are removed during excretion
    • urea and uric acid
    • food additives
    • drugs
    • pesticides
  6. Urea and uric acid are generated by __
    protein and nucleic acid catabolism
  7. Since __ is derived from plasma, regulation of plasma will affect the composition of __
    interstitial fluid
  8. stimulates RBC production
  9. involved in the regulation of blood pressure
    Angiotensin II
  10. __ converts to __ (active vitamin D)
    calcidiol; calcitriol
  11. Vitamin D is necessary for __
    regulating calcium and phosphate levels in the blood
  12. Glomerular filtration is driven by __
    hydrostatic and osmotic pressure
  13. glomerular hydrostatic pressure
    pressure of plasma due to blood pressure. (PGC) = 60mmHg
  14. glomerular osmotic pressure
    due to osmotic gradient (PBC)
  15. Overall, glomerular filtration pressure is __, favoring its movement __
    16mmHg; out of the capillary and into Bowman’s capsule
  16. The volume of glomerular filtrate produced is __ per __
    • 125mL; minute
    • or
    • 180L; day
  17. The filtrate enters the __
    kidney tubules
  18. The body’s average plasma volume is about __ in an adult
  19. The total plasma volume filters through the kidneys every __
    22 min
  20. Intrinsic Control/Regulation of GFR
    • Myogenic regulation
    • Tubuloglomerular feedback
    • Mesangial cell contraction
  21. Stretching of smooth muscle of afferent arteriole causes constriction
    Myogenic regulation
  22. Macula densa secretes paracrines in response to changes in GFR which cause either contraction or relaxation of afferent arteriole
    Tubuloglomerular feedback
  23. Cells contract in response to stretching, decreasing surface area of capillaries, reducing GFR
    Mesangial cell contraction
  24. Extrinsic Control/Regulation of GFR
    A drop in Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)
  25. A drop in Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) is due to __, causes a __ in GFR
    hemorrhage or sweating; drop
  26. A drop in MAP activates the __ which trigger __. This increases __ & decreases __
    sympathetic nervous system; smooth muscle contraction of afferent and efferent arterioles; renal vascular resistance;  urine production and water loss
  27. __ % of filtrate is reabsorbed
    • 98-99
    • - actively & passively
  28. Most solutes are reabsorbed by the __
    Proximal (mostly) & distal convoluted tubules
  29. Solutes that are reabsorbed create an __ gradient for the __ reabsorption of water
    • osmotic; passive
    • - Water follows salt
  30. hormones involved in reabsorption
    aldosterone & ADH
  31. Transport Maximum: Some molecules that are reabsorbed require __
    carrier proteins (facilitated diffusion): such as glucose
  32. Transport maximum: The number of __ determines the maximum quantity of __ that can be transported across the __
    carrier proteins; a particular molecule; renal tubule membrane
  33. If the concentration of molecules exceeds the number of carriers __
    Some of the molecules will not be reabsorbed but end up in the urine
  34. During secretion, molecules move from plasma of __ to the __
    peritubular capillaries; renal tubules
  35. During secretion, movement of molecules is the same as molecules of reabsorption except __
    in the reverse direction
Card Set
Renal System
Functions & Basic Renal Exchange Processes