(T/F) Companies use information as a weapon in the battle to increase productivity, deliver quality products and services, maintain customer loyalty, and make sound decisions.
Refers to the combination of hardware, software, and services that people use to manage, communicate, and share information.
Information technology (IT)
(T/F) More than ever, business success depends on information technology. IT is driving a new digital economy, where advances in hardware, software, and connectivity can provide enormous benefits to businesses and individuals.
A major supplier of office equipment and typewriters long before the modern computer era.
International Business Machines
IBM's predecessor company was founded in 1896 by _________, who invented a card that identified characters by the location of punched holes
A step-by-step process for developing high-quality information systems.
Systems analysis and design
Combines technology, people, and data to provide support for business functions such as order processing, inventory control, human resources, accounting, and many more.
(T/F) Some information systems handle routine day to-day tasks, while others can help managers make better decisions, spot marketplace trends, and reveal patterns that might be hidden in stored data.
Valued member of the IT department team who helps plan, develop, and maintain information systems.
(T/F) Analysts must be excellent communicators with strong analytical and critical thinking skills. Because systems analysts transform business requirements into IT projects, they must be business-savvy as well as technically competent, and be equally comfortable with managers and programmers, who sometimes have different points of view.
Set of related components that produces specific results. For example, specialized systems route Internet traffic, manufacture microchips, and control complex entities.
One that is vital to a company's operations.
Consists of basic facts that are the system's raw material.
Data that has been transformed into output that is valuable to users.
Consists of everything in the physical layer of the information system.
Hardware purchasers today face a wide array of technology choices and decisions. In 1965, __________, a co-founder of Intel, predicted that the number of transistors on an integrated circuit chip would double about every 24 months. His concept, called ________, has remained valid for almost 50 years.
Gordon Moore, Moore's Law
Refers to the programs that control the hardware and produce the desired information or results.
Software consists of:
Manages the hardware components, which can include a single workstation or a global network with many thousands of clients.
Consists of programs that support day-to-day business functions and provide users with the information they need.
A ____________ is a system, such as an inventory or payroll application, that can be adapted for use in many different types of companies.
A __________ is designed to meet the unique requirements of a specific business or industry, such as a Web-based retailer, a medical practice, or an auto dealership.
Most companies use a mix of software that is acquired at various times. When planning an information system, a company must consider how a new system will interface with older systems, which are called ____________.
Describe the tasks and business functions that users, managers, and IT staff members perform to achieve specific results. Processes are the building blocks of an information system because they represent actual day-to-day business operations.
People who have an interest in an information system are called ___________.
Stakeholders include the management group responsible for the system, the _____ inside and outside the company who will interact with the system, and IT staff members, such as systems analysts, programmers, and network administrators who develop and support the system.
the users (sometimes called end users)
(T/F) Each stakeholder group has a vital interest in the information system, but most experienced IT prokssionals agree that the success or failure of a system usually depends on whether it meets the needs of its users. For that reason, it is essential to understand user requirements and expectations throughout the development process.
Business in the 21st century will be shaped by three major trends:
Rapidly increasing globalization
Technology integration for seamless information access
Rapid growth of cloud-based computing and services
Involve various hardware and software designs, but a typical model is a series of Web pages that provides a user interface, which communicates with database management software and a Web-based data server.
Internet-based commerce [e-commerce (electronic commerce) or I-commerce (Internet commerce)]
This new shopping environment allows customers to do research, compare prices and features, check availability, arrange delivery, and choose payment methods in a single convenient session.
(T/F) Although the business-to-consumer (B2C) sector is more familiar to retail customers, the volume of business-to-business (B2B) transactions is many times greater. Industry observers predict that B2B sales will increase sharply as more firms seek to improve efficiency and reduce costs.
Electronic commerce between two companies used a data sharing arrangement called ________ which enabled computer-to-computer data transfer, usually over private telecommunications lines.
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
Important to smaller suppliers and customers who need instant information about prices and availability. Some _____ sites invite buyers, sellers, distributors, and manufacturers to offer products, submit specifications, and transact business.
Most large firms and government agencies use __________ software.
Supply Chain Management (SCM)
A _________ refers to all the companies who provide materials, services, and functions needed to provide a product to a customer.
__________ firms manufactured computers, routers, or microchips.
__________ companies included consultants, vendors, software developers, and service providers.
An overview of a company's mission, functions, organization, products, services, customers, suppliers, competitors, constraints, and future direction.
A specific set of transactions, events, and results that can be described and documented.
Graphically displays one or more business processes, such as handling an airline reservation, filling a product order, or updating a customer account.
Business Process Model (BPM)
For complex models, analysts can choose computer-based tools that use _______ that includes standard shapes and symbols to represent events, processes, workflows, and more.
Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN)
Administrative staff used __________, operational people used ___________, middle managers used __________, and top managers used __________.
decision support systems
executive information systems
Refers to information systems that support company-wide operations and data management requirements.
In many large companies, applications called __________ systems provide cost-effective support for users and managers throughout the company.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
Systems process data generated by day-to-day business operations.
Transaction processing (TP)
Provide job-related information support to users at all levels of a company.
Business support systems
Companies soon realized that computers also could produce valuable information. The new systems were called _________ because managers were the primary users.
Management information systems (MIS)
The newest development in data acquisition is called ___________ technology, which uses high-frequency radio waves to track physical objects.
radio frequency identification (RFID)
Knowledge management systems use a large database called a ________ that allows users to find information by entering keywords or questions in normal English phrases.
A knowledge management system uses ________, which are logical rules that identify data patterns and relationships.
Companies provide employees at all levels with technology that improves productivity.
Programs enable users to share data, collaborate on projects, and work in teams.
Most large companies require systems that combine transaction processing, business support, knowledge management, and user productivity features.
Top managers develop long-range plans, called _________, which define the company's overall mission and goals.
Provide direction, necessary resources, and performance feedback to supervisors and team leaders. Because they focus on a somewhat shorter time frame, middle managers need more detailed information than top managers, but somewhat less than supervisors who oversee day-to-day operations.
Oversee operational employees and carry out day to-day functions. They coordinate operational tasks and people, make necessary decisions, and ensure that the right tools, materials, and training are available.
Supervisors (Team Leaders)
Include users who rely on TP systems to enter and receive data they need to perform their jobs.
In many companies, operational users also need information to handle tasks and make decisions that were assigned previously to supervisors. This trend, called __________, gives employees more responsibility and accountability.
Produces a graphical representation of a concept or process that systems developers can analyze, test, and modify
Describes the information that a system must provide.
Tests system concepts and provides an opportunity to examine input, output, and user interfaces before final decisions are made.
Early working version of an information system.
Also called computer-aided software engineering, is a technique that uses powerful software, called CASE tools, to help systems analysts develop and maintain information systems.
Computer-aided systems engineering (CASE)
The most popular alternatives are ________, which is a traditional method that still is widely used, ___________, which is a more recent approach that many analysts prefer, and _________, also called adaptive methods, which include the latest trends in software development.
object-oriented (O-O) analysis
Process of planning, scheduling, monitoring, controlling, and reporting upon the development of an information system
A traditional systems development technique that is time-tested and easy to understand.
Structured analysis uses a series of phases, called the ________, to plan, analyze, design, implement, and support an information system.
systems development life cycle (SDLC)
A process model shows the data that flows in and out of system processes. Inside each process, input data is transformed by _______ that generate the output.
Uses various symbols and shapes to represent data flow, processing, and storage.
data flow diagram (DFD)
In the _________, the result of each phase is called a _________, which flows into the next phase.
waterfall model, deliverable
The systems planning phase usually begins with a formal request to the IT department, called a __________, which describes problems or desired changes in an information system or a business process.
The purpose of system planning is to perform a __________ to evaluate an IT-related business opportunity or problem.
A key part of the preliminary investigation is a ___________ that reviews anticipated costs and benefits and recommends a course of action based on operational, technical, economic, and time factors.
The purpose of the _________ phase is to build a logical model of the new system.
The first step of system analysis is ___________, where you investigate business processes and document what the new system must do to satisfy users.
The purpose of the ___________ phase is to create a physical model that will satisfy all documented requirements for the system
The deliverable for this phase is the ____________, which is presented to management and users for review and approval.
system design specification
During the__________ phase, the new system is constructed.
During the ___________ phase, the IT staff maintains, enhances, and protects the system.
systems support and security
A __________ can expand to meet new business requirements and volumes.
Whereas structured analysis treats processes and data as separate components, object-oriented analysis combines data and the processes that act on the data into things called ______.
An object is a member of a _____, which is a collection of similar objects.
Objects possess characteristics called ______, which the object inherits from its class or possesses on its own.
A __________ requests specific behavior or information from another object.
Represents a series of iterations, or revisions, based on user feedback.
Focuses on team-based fact-finding, which is only one phase of the development process
Joint application development (JAD)
A compressed version of the entire process
Rapid application development (RAD)
The IT group provides technical support, which includes seven main functions:
systems support and security
Provides vital protection and maintenance services for system hardware and software, including enterprise computing systems, networks, transaction processing systems, and corporate IT infrastructure.
Systems support and security
Provides users with technical information, training, and productivity support.
The IT ________ group typically provides leadership and overall guidance, but the systems themselves are developed by teams consisting of users, managers, and IT staff members.
The user support function usually is called a _________ which trains users and managers on application software such as e-mail, word processing spreadsheets, and graphics packages.
service desk or help desk (IC)
Involves data design, management, security, backup, and access.
Business operations depend on networks that enable company-wide information systems including hardware and software maintenance, support, and security
Vital technical support function. Its specialists design and construct Web pages, monitor traffic, manage hardware and software, and link Web-based applications to the company's information systems
Many large IT departments also use a ________ team that reviews and tests all applications and systems changes to verify specifications and software quality standards. This team usually is a separate unit that reports directly to IT management.
quality assurance (QA)
Investigates, analyzes, designs, develops, installs, evaluates, and maintains a company's information systems.
Verifies that an individual demonstrated a certain level of knowledge and skill on a standardized test. It is an excellent way for IT professionals to learn new skills and gain recognition for their efforts