1. Sociological perspective
    Understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context.
  2. Society
    People who share a culture and a territory.
  3. Social location
    The group memberships that people have because of their location in history and society.
  4. Science
    The application of systematic methods to obtain knowledge and the knowledge obtained by those methods.
  5. Natural sciences
    The intellectual and academic disciplines designed to comprehend, explain, and predict events in our natural environment.
  6. Social sciences
    The intellectual and academic disciplines designed to understand the social world objectively by means of controlled and repeated observations.
  7. Generalization
    A statement that goes beyond the individual case and is applied to a broader group or situation.
  8. Patterns
    Recurring characteristics or events.
  9. Common sense
    Those things that “everyone knows” are true.
  10. Scientific method
    The use of objective, systematic observations to test theories.
  11. Positivism
    The application of the scientific approach to the social world.
  12. Sociology
    The scientific study of society and human behavior.
  13. Class conflict
    Marx’s term for the struggle between capitalists and workers.
  14. Bourgeoisie
    Marx’s term for capitalists, those who own the means of production.
  15. Proletariat
    Marx’s term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production.
  16. Social integration
    The degree to which members of a group or a society feel united by shared values and other social bonds; also known as social cohesion.
  17. Value free
    The view that a sociologist’s personal values or biases should not influence social research.
  18. Values
    The standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly.
  19. Objectivity
    Value neutrality in research.
  20. Replication
    The repetition of a study in order to test its findings.
  21. Verstehen
    A German word used by Weber that is perhaps is best understood as “to have insight into someone’s situation”
  22. Subjective meanings
    The meanings that people give their own behavior.
  23. Social facts
    Durkheim’s term for a group’s patterns of behavior.
  24. Basic sociology
    Sociological research for the purpose of making discoveries about life in human groups, not for making changes in those groups.
  25. Applied sociology
    The use of sociology to solve problems-from the micro level of classroom interaction and family relationships to the macro level of crime and pollution.
  26. Theory
    A general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work; an explanation of how two or more facts are related to one another.
  27. Symbolic interactionism
    A theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another.
  28. Functional analysis
    A theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function that, when fulfilled, contributes to societies equilibrium; also known as functionalism and structural functionalism.
  29. Conflict theory
    A theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of groups that are competing for scarce resources.
  30. Macro-level analysis
    An examination of large scale patterns of society.
  31. Micro-level analysis
    An examination of small scale patterns of society; such as how the members of a group interact.
  32. Social interaction
    What people do when they are in one another’s presence; includes communications at a distance.
  33. Nonverbal interaction
    Communications without words through gestures, use of space, silence, and so on.
  34. Globalization
    The extensive interconnections among nations due to the expansion of capitalism.
Card Set
concept list ch1