Chapter 22-23

  1. What are the functions of the lymphatic system?
    • Fluid Balance
    • Fat Absorption
    • Defense
  2. To where does the lymph node drain in the left side of the body?
    Thoracic duct
  3. What is MALT? What are examples of tissues that have MALT?
    • Mucosa-Associated-Lymphoid-Tissue (MALT); are found in and beneath the mucous membranes
    • lining the digestive,
    • respiratory,
    • urinary,
    • and reproductive tracts.
    • Thymus does not have MALT. 
    • Tonsils do have MALT.
  4. What is the lymphatic tissue surrounding arteries within the spleen?
    White pulp.
  5. Does the spleen act as a blood reservoir?
  6. Thymic corpuscles give rise to what?
    Regulatory T Cells.
  7. Is innate immunity specific?
    False. Nonspecific Resistance.
  8. Are innate and adaptive immunity linked together?
  9. What does activated complement form?
    Membrane Attack Complex (MAC).
  10. Which type of white blood cells are attracted to the inflamation site first?
  11. What are macrophages developed from?
  12. Eosinophil function?
    Enters tissues from the blood and defends against parasatic infections; participates in inflammation associated with asthma and allergies.
  13. Natural Killer cell function?
    Lyses tumor and virus-infected cells.
  14. B-cell function?
    After activation, differentiates to become plasma cell or memory B cell.
  15. Helper T cell function?
    Activates B cells and cytotoxic T cells.
  16. What is the process of regulatory T cells called?
    Negative selection.
  17. What are the prymary lymphatic organs?
    Red Bone Marrow and Thymus Gland.
  18. What part combines with antigenic determinant of antigen?
    Variable region.
  19. IgG
    Crosses the placenta and provide immune protection to the fetus and newborn.
  20. IgM
    Responsible for transfusion reactions in the ABO blood system.
  21. IgA
    Found in colostrum and milk to provide immune protection to newborns.
  22. IgE
    Stimulates the inflammatory response.
  23. IgD
    Functions as antigen-binding receptors on B cells.
  24. What do opsinins cause?
    They cause the antigen to be more susceptible to phagocytosis.
  25. Antibody are effective against intercelluar or extracellular?
  26. Cytotoxic T cell
    Responsible for destroying cells by lysis or by producing cytokines.
  27. How does the respiratory system change PH?
    Changing the saturation of carbon dioxide.
  28. What are the unpaired cartilages?
    • Thyroid: largest, Adam's apple.
    • Cricoid: most inferior, base of larynx. 
    • Epiglottis: attached to thyroid and has a flap near base of tongue. Elastic rather than hyaline cartilage.
  29. What are the paired cartilages?
    • Arytenoids: attached to cricoid. 
    • Corniculate: attached to arytenoids. 
    • Cuneiform: contained in mucous membrane.
  30. What is the name of the cartilage at bifurcation of the trachea?
  31. What kind of epithelium does the trachea have?
    Pseudo-stratified cilia-ted columnar epithelium with goblet cells.
  32. What kind of cells are present in the respiratory membrane?
    • Type I pneumocytes.
    • Type II peunomocytes. 
    • Dust cells.
  33. Which muscles involved in respiration?
    Diaphragm, external intercostals, pectoralis minor, scalenes.
  34. Pressure Vs Volume?
    Boyle's law: Pressure is inversely proportionate to Volume. So as Volume gets larger (when diaphragm contracts), then Pressure in alveoli gets smaller.
  35. Can emphysema decrease lung compliance?
  36. Spirometry
    Measure volumes of air that move into and out of respiratory system.
  37. Tidal volume
    amount of air inspired or expired with each breath.
  38. Inspiratory reserve volume
    Amount that can be inspired forcefully after inspiration of the tidal volume.
  39. Expiratory reserve volume
    Amount that can be forcefully expired after expiration of the tidal volume.
  40. Residual volume
    Volume still remaining in respiratory passages and lungs after most forceful expiration.
Card Set
Chapter 22-23
Anatomy & Physiology II