Vocab Words

  1. Phobia
    An anxiety disorder; excessive and unrealistic fear of a certain object, situation, or event that causes one to avoid that object, situation or event.
  2. Placebo effect
    In research a scientifically significant response that cannot be explained by physiological variables and is believed to be psychologically based.
  3. Psychosomatic disorders
    A physical illness that is believed to be psychological in origin
  4. Psychosis
    A dramatic break with reality
  5. Schizophrenia
    Psychotic disorder characterized by hallucinations, dilutions, paranoia, and split from reality.
  6. Empiricism
    In reasearch when something is tested and observed in order to prove its truth; and can not be said to be true unless proven to be true.
  7. Anxiety
    A mood condition characterized by fear, worry, apprehension and uneasiness. Associated with emotion and behavior
  8. Depression
    • Mood Disorder (Affect Dissorder)
    • Display of Emotion
    • An emotional state or mood characterized by one or more of these symptoms: sad mood, low energy, poor concentration, sleep or appetite changes, feeling of worthlessness or hopelessness, and thought of suicide.
  9. Operational definition
    A statement of the procedures or ways in which a researcher is going to measure behaviors or qualities.
  10. DSM IV
    A reference work developed by the American Psychiatric Association and designed to provide guidelines for the diagnosis and classification of mental disorders.
  11. Delusion
    Idea that is clearly false but still believed to be true. In contrast with reality
  12. Defense Mechanism
    • Freud.
    • Unconscious strategies for avoiding or reducing threatening feelings, such as fear and anxiety.
  13. Ego
    • Freud
    • The part of human personality that combines innate biological impulses or drives with reality to produce appropriate behavior.
  14. Paranoia
    A pervasive feeling of distrust of others
  15. Hallucination
    Sensory experience in the absence of external stimulus
  16. Antisocial Disorder
    Personality disorder; lack of conscience no sense of remorse. Behavior does not improve as they mature.
  17. Affective disorder
    Depresion; A mental disorder characterized by a consistent pervasive alteration in mood, and affecting thoughts, emotions, and behaviors.
  18. Prognosis
    The expected course of a disease; the patient's chance of recovery
  19. Psychotherapy
    a form of therapy developed by Freud that involves a patient's communication with a trained professional that helps open up their problems.
  20. anxiety disorders
    anxiety disorders are a group of disorders characterized by obsessive worry and anxiety that disrupts daily function and behavior. examples: OCD, phobias, panic attacks
  21. Endorphins
    Neurotransmitters released in the through the brain with stress an pain, can cause a sense of pleasure.
  22. Heuristic
    A heuristic is a mental shortcut that allows people to solve problems and make judgments quickly and efficiently. Can be helpful but also can cause bias
  23. False consensus effect
    a cognitive bias whereby a person tends to overestimate the degree of agreement that others have with them.
  24. Bipolar Disorder
    (Manic-depressive Disorder) an affective disorder defined by periods of excitability alternating with periods of depression.
  25. Psychology
    The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
  26. Psychogenic
    Psychosomatic disorder, a disorder in which a mental illness causes structural damage to bodily organs through inappropriate activation of the nervous system.
  27. Projection
    A Freudian defense mechanism characterized by unconscious denial of one's own emotions/attributes by attributing them to others.
  28. Neurosis
    An affective disorder developed by Freud featuring anxiety or exaggerated behavior but neither delusion nor hallucinations; the person knows they have the disorder.
  29. Epidemiology
    The study of teh factors affecting the health and illness of populations
  30. Case History
    a detailed record of all the information pertinent to what is being studied.
  31. Sociopathic personality
    a personality disorder characterized by inhibited gratification in criminal, sexual, or aggressive impulses and the inability to learn from past mistakes
  32. Psychosurgery
    surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
  33. Psychopathic personality
    a personality disorder characterized by inhibited gratification in criminal, sexual, or aggressive impulses and the inability to learn from past mistakes
  34. Psychoactive drug
    a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
  35. Personality disorder
    psychological disorder characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning; ex. Narcism
  36. Obsession
    the dominance of one’s thoughts or feelings over a certain idea, person, etc.
  37. Nondirective Therapy
    procedure developed by Rodgers in which the therapist restrains from directing the client but instead reflects back upon what the client has said
  38. Multiple Personality
    a dissociative disorder in which one person displays multiple alter egos each with its own way of interacting with the environment
  39. Compulsion
    anxiety disorder characterized by an uncontrollable, repetitive and unwanted urge to perform a certain act
  40. Delusional Disorders
    a psychotic mental illness characterized by holding delusions in one’s mind; ex. grandeur
  41. Operant Conditioning
    – Skinner’s learning theory in whichbehavior is modified/chosen because of consequences
  42. Classical Conditioning
    Pavlov’s learning theory in which anexternal stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus until both stimuliproduce the same results
  43. alarm reaction
    The initial stage in the body's response to stressful stimuli
  44. Electroconvulsive therapy
    electrically induced seizures primarily used in the treatment of severe mental disorders
  45. Denial
    defense mechanism postulated by Freud in which a person rejects a fact that is too uncomfortable despite indisputable evidence
  46. Systematic Desensitiation
    A type of behavioral therapy used to help effectively overcome phobias and other anxiety disorders with relaxed stimuli.
  47. Reinforcement
    any consequencethat increases the likelihood of the given response happening again in thefuture
  48. Positive Reinforcement
    conditioning in which the desired behavior is followed by a rewarding responsein hopes of increasing the likelihood of the given response happening again inthe future
  49. Extinction
    – the diminishing of aconditioned response/learned behavior
  50. Insight
    When the solution to a problem comes to you in an all-of-a-sudden manner. The sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem.
Card Set
Vocab Words
Psychology Vocab