- The subject pronouns in Italian are:
- Io - I
- Tu - Singular You
- Lui - He
- Lei - She
- Esso/Essa - It (archaic and literary)
- Noi - We
- Voi - Plural You / You all
- Loro - They (speaking of people)
- Essi/Esse - They (archaic and literary)
- The verb is always conjugated to match the subject, and the subject is only specified for clarity or emphasis.
- Articles have to match gender and number of the noun they refer to.
- The singular determinate articles (the) are:
- Lo - masculine, used before Z, S+consonant, GN, and some rarer consonant clusters.
- Il - masculine, used before consonants except the above.
- La - feminine, used before all consonants.
- L' - an elision of the above used before vowels.
- The indeterminate articles (a/an) are:
Uno - masculine, used before Z, S+consonant, GN, and some rarer consonant clusters.
- Un - masculine, used in all other cases.
- Una - feminine, used before all consonants.
- Un' - feminine, used before vowels.
The plural definite articles (the) are:
Gli - for masculine nouns before vowels, Z, S+consonant, GN and some rarer consonant clusters.
- I - for masculine nouns in all other cases.
- Le - for feminine nouns.
- Articulated prepositions
When some prepositions are followed by a definite article they merge into a single word.
Article: il, lo, la, l', i, gli, le
- Di + article: del, dello, della, dell', dei, degli, delle
- A + article: al, allo, alla, all', ai, agli, alle
- Da + article: dal, dallo, dalla, dall', dai, dagli, dalle
- In + article: nel, nello, nella, nell', nei, negli, nelle
- Su + article: sul, sullo, sulla, sull', sui, sugli, sulle
- The compounds formed by con and per are archaic and literary, with the exception of col (con + il) for which the contraction is optional.