Fluid Balance

  1. Diffusion
    Solutes move from high to low concentration
  2. Osmosis
    Movement of water from low solute to high solute concentration
  3. Osmotic pressure
    Amount of pressure required to stop osmotic flow of water
  4. Hydrostatic Pressure
    The force that pushes water out of the vascular system at capillary level
  5. Active Transport
    • Process in which molecules move against concentration gradient (i.e. Na+/K+ pump) ENERGY REQUIRED
    • (Solutes move from low conc. to high conc.)
  6. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) is produced in...and causes..?
    Pituitary glands; decrease in urine output via kidney tubules reabsorbing water
  7. Renin is released by....when there is a decrease in blood flow to the receptors...which causes a conversion of ......to......?
    Nephrons; Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II
  8. Angiotensin II causes nephrons to..and...?
    Retain Na+ and water; stimulates adrenal cortex to release aldosterone
  9. Aldosterone causes kidney tubules to....?
    Excrete K+ and retain Na+, causing water reabsorption and increase blood volume
  10. ADH is synthesized by the.....and secreted by the....?
    hypothalamus; posterior pituitary
  11. Causes of ADH release?
    Fluid loss (Vomiting, Diarrhea, Blood loss); Sepsis; Fever; Severe burns
  12. What is the action of the natriuretic peptides?
    Suppress secretion of aldosterone, renin, and ADH to decrease blood volume and pressure
  13. What are the sx of Fluid Volume Deficit?
    • Increased-Temp, Pulse, Resp, Urine spec.gravity, Hematocrit
    • Decreased-Skin Turgor, B/P, Wt, Energy, Urine Output, LOC
  14. Causes of Fluid Volume Deficit?
    Impaired thirst mechanism, Isotonic loss, Vomiting, Diarrhea, Sweating, Decreased intake, Prolonged rapid resps., Fever
  15. Normal range Urine Specific Gravity?
  16. Treatment interventions for Fluid Volume Deficit?
    Force fluids, Isotonic IV Fluids, I&O (hourly), Daily wt, VS, Skin turgor, Urine spec. gravity
  17. What are sx of Fluid Volume Excess?
    • Increased-Pulse, BP
    • Decreased-Hct, BUN
    • Labored Resps (dyspnea, crackles), Peripheral edema, Jugular vein distension, Urine spec. gravity <1.010
  18. Causes of Fluid Volume Excess?
    Isotonic gain (increase in interstitial compartment and/or intravascular), CHF, Renal failure, Cirrhosis, Excessive Na+ intake, Rapid/excessive IV infusion
  19. Treatment interventions for Fluid Volume Excess?
    Diuretics, fluid and Na+ restriction, daily wt, breath sounds, check for edema
  20. Isotonic IV fluids?
    LR, 0.9% NaCl, 0.45% NaCl in H20, (D5W)
  21. Hypertonic IV Fluids?
    D5LR, Mannitol or Dextrose solutions (not in H20), 3% NaCl
  22. Hypotonic IV Fluids?
    0.45% NaCl, D5W (in the body)
Card Set
Fluid Balance
Fluid Balance