Food service operations are viewed as open or closed systems?
A conceptual simplification of a real situation in which extraneous information is excluded and analysis is simplified.
A collection of interrelated parts or subsystems unified by design to obtain one or more objectives.
Any human, physical, or operational resource required to accomplish objectives of the system.
Action or activity to change inputs into outputs.
Result of transforming input into achievement of a system's goal.
All stored information that provides historical records of a system's operations.
The ____ approach focuses on the totality of the organization rather than its processes or parts.
Pre 1960, what approaches were used to examine organizations?
Analytical fact finding approaches
Ludwig Von Bertalanffy is credited with introducing what theory?
Luchsinger and Dock listed what fundamental implications of the term system in 1976?
- A system is designed to accomplish an objective
- Subsystems of a system have an established arrangement
- Interrelationships exist among the elements
- Flow of resources through a system is more important than basic elements
- Organization objectives are more important than those of the subsystems
The primary output in a foodservice system is __________________________.
the production of the desired quantity and quality of food to meet customers' needs.
The expanded systems more of an organization includes four additional parts:
- environmental factors
Internal and external control provides:
guidance for the system
Internal control consists of:
- plans, including the goals and objectives of the organization
- policies and procedures
External control consists of:
- federal regulations and contracts with outside companies
The control element performs three functions in a system:
- ensures that resources are used effectively and efficiently in accomplishing organizational objectives
- ensures the organization is functioning within legal and regulatory constraints
- provides standards to be used in evaluation of operations
Things outside the system that can impact the operation of the system:
Processes by which a system continually receives information from its internal and external environment:
Organizations that are in continual interaction with the environment:
Each part of the system affects performance of other parts of the system:
Parts are blended together into a unified whole:
Working together can create greater outcomes than working individually:
Continuous response and adaptation of a system to its internal and extended environment:
What are six unique characteristics of an open system?
- Interdependency of parts, leading to integration and synergy
- Dynamic equilibrium
- Permeable boundaries
- Interface of systems and subsystems
- Hierarchy of the system
Same or similar output can be achieved by using different inputs or by varying the transformation process:
Limits of a system that set the domain of organizational activity:
Area where two systems or subsystems come in contact with each other:
The three levels of an organization are:
- internal(technical core or operational level)
- Organizational level
- Policy making corporate level
Characteristic of a system that is composed of subsystems of a lower order and a suprasystem of a higher order:
Complete system within itself that is part of a larger system:
The inputs of the food service system are what four types of resources?
- Human: labor and skils
- Materials: food and supplies
- Facilities: space and equipment
- Operational: money, time, utilities, and information
Search for and acquisition of information about events and trends external to the organization:
What are the six characteristics of strategic thinking?
- Intent focused
- Long-term oriented
- Builds on past and present
- Hypothesis driven
What are the five forces framework?
- New entry
Individuals or groups who are significantly affected by or can significantly influence a company's decisions:
Another organization selling a similar product/service to the same market segment: