Cranial nerves; facial and abdominal muscles

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  1. Lateral rectus
    • Action: abduction
    • Innervation: abducens (Vl)
  2. Medial rectus
    • Action: adduction
    • Innervation: oculomotor (lll)
  3. Superior rectus
    • Action: elevation
    • Innervation: oculomotor (lll)
  4. Inferior rectus
    • Action: depression
    • Innervation: oculomotor (lll)
  5. Inferior oblique
    • Action: lateral rotation
    • Innervation: oculomotor (lll)
  6. Superior oblique
    • Action: medial rotation
    • Innervation: trochlear (lV)
  7. Levator Palpebrae Superioris
    • Action: elevate the superior eyelid
    • Innervation: oculomotor (lll)
  8. Olfactory nerve
    • CN l
    • Olfaction (smell)
    • Foramen: cribriform plate of ethmoid
    • CNS nucleus: temporal lobe cortex
  9. Optic nerve
    • CN ll
    • Vision
    • Foramen: optic canal
    • CNS nucleus: thalamus and occipital cortex
  10. Oculomotor nerve
    • CN lll
    • Somatic efferent to inferior oblique, inferior rectus, medial rectus, superior rectus, levator palpebrae superioris 
    • Visceral efferent to parasympathetics of eye (pupillary constriction)
    • Foramen: superior orbital fissure
    • CNS nucleus: pons
  11. Trochlear nerve
    • CN lV
    • Superior oblique muscle
    • Foramen: superior oblique fissure
    • CNS nucleus: pons
  12. CN lV (Trochlear) palsy
    • Loss of medial rotation by superior oblique in left eye
    • Compensate by tilting head to right to medially rotate eye
    • Chronic neck pain
  13. Abducens nerve
    • CN Vl
    • Lateral rectus
    • Foramen: superior orbital fissure
    • CNS nucleus: pons
  14. Trigeminal nerve V1
    • Ophthalmic division
    • General afferent for nasal mucosa, cutaneous nose, forehead, and scalp
    • Foramina: superior orbital fissure
    • CNS nucleus: pons
  15. Trigeminal nerve V2
    • Maxillary division
    • General afferent for maxillary alveoli and gums; cutaneous cheek and temple
    • Foramina: foramen rotundum
    • CNS nucleus: pons
  16. Trigeminal nerve V3
    • Mandibular division
    • Genereal afferent for sensation of anterior 2/3 of tongue, mandibular alveoli and gums; cutaneous chin, mandible and temple
    • Somatic efferent to temporalis, masseter, lateral pterygoid, medial pterygoid
    • Foramina: foramen ovale
    • CNS nucleus: pons
  17. Facial nerve
    • CN Vll
    • Somatic efferent to muscles of facial expression, stapedius m., stylohyoid m., posterior half of digastric m.
    • Visceral efferent to parasympathetics of sublingual and submandibular glands, lacrimal glands, nasal mucosa
    • Special afferent to taste of anterior 2/3 of tongue
    • Branches: temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, cervical
    • Foramina: internal acoustic meatus, stylomastoid foramen
    • CNS nucleus: pons
  18. Vestibulocochlear nerve
    • CN Vlll
    • Balance and hearing
    • Foramen: internal acoustic meatus
    • CNS nucleus: pons/medulla
  19. Glossopharyngeal nerve
    • CN lX
    • Somatic efferent to stylopharyngeus muscle
    • Visceral efferent to parotid glands
    • Sensation to posterior 1/3 of tongue
    • Taste from posterior 1/3 of tongue
    • Foramen: jugular foramen
    • CNS nucleus: medulla
  20. Vagus nerve
    • CN X
    • Somatic efferent to pharyngeal muscles and tensor veli palatini (palatal muscles)
    • Parasympathetics to glands of pharynx, heart, and abdominal viscera
    • Sensation to pharynx, abdominal viscera, aortic arch, larynx, esophagus, and skin behind ear
    • Taste from epiglottis and pharynx
    • Foramen: jugular foramen
    • CNS nucleus: medulla
  21. Spinal accessory nerve
    • CN Xl
    • Trapezius and sternocleidomastoid 
    • Foramen: jugular foramen
    • CNS nucleus: spinal cord
  22. Hypoglossal nerve
    • CN Xll
    • Intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of tongue
    • Foramen: hypoglossal canal
    • CNS nucleus: medulla
  23. Mentalis
    • Prox attachment: mandible inferior to incisors
    • Dist attachment: skin of chin
    • Action: wrinkles chin
    • Innervation: facial nerve (CN Vll)
  24. Zygomaticus major
    • Prox attachment: zygomatic bone
    • Dist attachment: corner of mouth
    • Action: raises corner of mouth
    • Innervation: facial nerve (CN Vll)
  25. Depressor anguli oris
    • Prox attachment: body of mandible inferior to incisors
    • Dist attachment: corner of mouth
    • Action: depresses corners of mouth
    • Innervation: facial nerve (CN Vll)
  26. Frontalis
    • Prox attachment: cranial aponeurosis
    • Dist attachment: skin of forehead
    • Action: raises eyebrows
    • Innervation: facial nerve (CN Vll)
  27. Platysma
    • Prox attachment: pectoral fascia
    • Dist attachment: skin and muscle around mandible
    • Action: tenses skin of neck
    • Innervation: facial nerve (CN Vll)
  28. Temporalis
    • Prox attachment: temporal fossa
    • Dist attachment: coronoid process of mandible
    • Action: closes, retracts, and lateral excursion of mandible
    • Innervation: trigeminal nerve (CN V3)
  29. Masseter
    • Prox attachment: zygomatic bone and arch
    • Dist attachment: angle of mandible
    • Action: closes jaw
    • Innervation: trigeminal nerve (CN V3)
  30. Lateral pterygoids
    • Prox attachment: sphenoid bone
    • Dist attachment: mandibular condyle
    • Action: protrudes mandible (bilateral), lateral excursion of mandible (unilateral)
    • Innervation: trigeminal nerve (CN V3)
  31. Digastric m anterior belly
    • Prox attachment: mandible
    • Dist attachment: hyoid
    • Action: Elevate hyoid and widen pharynx during swallowing; assist in opening mandible
    • Innervation: CN V3
  32. Digastric m posterior belly
    • Prox attachment: mastoid
    • Dist attachment: hyoid
    • Action: Elevate hyoid and widen pharynx during swallowing; assist in opening mandible
    • Innervation: CN Vll
  33. Stylohyoid
    • Prox attachment: styloid process
    • Dist attachment: hyoid
    • Action: Elevate hyoid and widen pharynx during swallowing; assist in opening mandible
    • Innervation: CN Vll
  34. Mylohyoid
    • Prox attachment: mandible
    • Dist attachment: hyoid
    • Action: Elevate hyoid and widen pharynx during swallowing; assist in opening mandible
    • Innervation: CN V3
  35. Geniohyoid
    • Prox attachment: mandible
    • Dist attachment: hyoid
    • Action: Elevate hyoid and widen pharynx during swallowing; assist in opening mandible
    • Innervation: C1 via CN Xll
  36. Medial pterygoid
    • Prox attachment: maxilla and sphenoid
    • Dist attachment: angle of mandible
    • Action: close mandible
    • Innervation: trigeminal nerve (CN V3)
  37. Afferents of the tongue
    • Special afferents (taste)
    • Ant 2/3 - facial n
    • Post 1/3 - glossopharyngeal

    • General afferents 
    • Ant 2/3 - lingual
    • Post 1/3 - glossopharyngeal
  38. Genioglossus m
    • Action: Protrudes tongue
    • Innervation: Hypoglossal n (CN Xll)
  39. Hyoglossus m
    • Action: Depresses and retracts tongue
    • Innervation: hypoglossal n (CN Xll)
  40. Styloglossus m
    • Action: Elevates and retracts tongue
    • Innervation: Hypoglossal n (CN Xll)
  41. Levator and Tensor Veli Palatini m
    • Elevate and tense soft palate
    • Close off nasopharynx
    • Innervation: Vagus n (Levator Palatini) and V3 (Tensor Veli Palatini)
  42. Stylopharyngeus and Palatopharyngeus m
    • Elevate and dilate pharynx
    • Innervation: Glossopharyngeal (Stylopharyngeus) and Vagus (Palatopharyngeus)
  43. Lateral Cricoarytenoid m
    • Action: Rotate arytenoid cartilages medially (of larynx); ADduct vocal ligaments
    • Innervation: recurrent laryngeal nerve (CN X)
  44. Posterior Cricoarytenoid m
    • Action: Rotate arytenoid cartilages laterally (of larynx); ABduct vocal ligaments
    • Innervation: recurrent laryngeal nerve (CN X)
  45. Cricothyroid m
    • Action: pulls thyroid cartilage anteriorly (of larynx), tightens vocal ligaments
    • Innervation: External Laryngeal n (CN X)
  46. Thyroarytenoid m
    • Action: pulls thyroid cartilage posteriorly (larynx), slackens vocal ligaments, also ADducts vocal ligaments
    • Innervation: Recurrent laryngeal n (CN X)
  47. Subcostalis muscles
    • Depress ribs
    • Span 2 or more ribs
  48. Transverse Thoracis muscles
    Depress ribs (weak)
  49. External oblique m
    • Action: flex vertebral column (bilateral); lateral flexion and rotation of vertebral column (unilateral)
    • Contralateral rotator
    • *External Oblique Aponeurosis - broad tendon; attaches to linea alba at midline
    • Innervation: T7-T12
  50. Internal oblique m
    • Action: antagonist to diaphragm, compress organs pushing them up (bilateral); lateral flexion and rotation (lateral)
    • Ipsilateral rotator
    • Innervation: T7-T12, L1
  51. Rectus abdominis m
    • Action: flex lumbar spine, exhalation, increase abdominal pressure
    • Innervation: T6-T12
  52. Transverse abdominis m
    • Action: compress viscera, stabilize thorax and pelvis
    • Innervation: T7-T12, L1
Author
ID
321550
Card Set
Cranial nerves; facial and abdominal muscles
Description
Gross anatomy unit 3
Updated
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