What is a foodborne illness?
Disease transmitted to people by food
When is a foodborne illness considered an outbreak?
- When two or more people have the same symptoms after eating the same food
- An investigation is conducted by the state and local regulatory authorities
- The outbreak is confirmed by a laboratory analysis
What are the three categories of contaminants?
What is the greatest threat to food safety? What does it include
Pathogens include viruses, parasites, fungi, and bacteria
What are chemical contaminants?
They can include cleaners, sanitizers, and polishes
What are the five most common food handling mistakes?
- Purchasing food from unsafe sources
- Failing to cook food correctly
- Holding food at incorrect temperatures
- Using contaminated equipment
- Practicing poor personal hygiene
What are the four main factors related to the five most common food handling mistakes?
- Time-temperature abuse
- Poor Personal hygiene
- Poor cleaning and sanitizing
What is the food most likely to become unsafe?
What are the three populations at high risk for foodborne illness?
- Elderly people
- Preschool-age children
- People with compromised immune systems
Who inspects all food except meat, poultry, and eggs?
Who issues the food code?
Who inspects and regulates meat, poultry, and eggs?
Which two agencies conduct research into the causes of foodborne illness outbreaks and assists in investigating outbreaks?
- PHS public health service
What does TCS stand for?
Temperature Control for Safety
What is the name for harmful microorganisms?
What are the big six bacteria, viruses, parasites and molds that cause severe illness?
- Salmonela typhi
- Nontyphoidal salmonela
- E. Coli
- Hep A
What are the 6 most common symptoms of foodborne illness?
- Abdominal Cramps
What is the range of onset time for foodboorne illness?
30 minutes to 6 weeks
What is Fat Tom(six conditions bacteria need to grow)?
What type of food best supports growth of bacteria?
What is the range of acidity?
What is the best acidity range for bacteria to grow?
4-7(mildly acidic to neutral)
What is the best temperature for rapid bacteria growth?
What is the temperature danger zone?
What are the four most contagious bacteria that can cause the most severe illness?
- Salmonella Typhi
- Nontyphoidal Salmonella
- E. Coli
Who caries Salmonella Typhi?
Who caries nontyphoidal salmonella?
What bacteria is found only in human feces of humans with the illness and can be transferred by flies?
What bacteria is found in the intestines of cattle?
What food is linked with E. Coli?
- Ground beef
- Contaminated produce
What food is linked with salmonella typhi?
- Ready to eat food
What food is related with nontyphoidal salmonella?
- Poultry and eggs
- Milk and dairy
What are the two main sources of Hep A?
- Feces of people infected
- Shellfish from contaminated water
Where can norovirus be found?
- Feces of those infected
- Contaminated water
What two foods are linked with the two main viruses(Hep A, Norovirus)?
- Ready-to-eat food
- Shellfish from contaminated water
What are the sources for parasites?
- wild game
- food processed with contaminated water, like produce
What is the most important way to prevent foodborne illness from parasites?
Purchase food from approved, reputable buyers
What is included with fungi?
Where can the ciguatera toxin be found?
What is the food defense program created by the FDA?
What does ALERT stand for?
What is the name for a protein in a food or ingredient that some people are sensitive to?
What are symptoms of an allergic reaction?
- Wheezing or shortness of breath
- Hives/itchy rashes
- Swelling of various body parts including face, eyes, hands, or feet
- Abdominal pain
What are the big eight food allergies?
- Fish(bass, flounder, cod)
- Crustacean shellfish(crab, lobster, shrimp)
- Tree nuts(walnuts, pecans)
____ Americans have a food allergy, resulting in ____ emergency room visits per year.
What is the most important way to prevent a foodborne illness from viruses?
Practice good personal hygeine
A guest complaining about a reversal of hot and cold sensations would most likely be what?
What is carried by 30-50% of people in their nose and 20-35% on their skin?
What is the hand washing process?
- Wet hands and arms
- Apply soap
- Scrub hands and arms vigorously(10-15 seconds)
- Rinse hands and arms thoroughly
- Dry hands and arms
How long should the hand washing process take?
Where can you wash your hands?
In a sink designated for hand washing
When do you use hand antiseptics?
After washing, never in the place of
When should you never handle ready to eat foods with bare hands?
When you primarily serve high-risk population
When can you handle ready to eat foods with bare hands?
- Food will be added as an ingredient to a dish that does not contain raw meat, seafood, or poultry, but will be cooked at at least 145
- When food will be added as ingredient to a dish containing raw foods, but food will be cooked to required minimum temperature of raw items
What is the only jewelry a food handler can wear on their hands/arms?
plain band ring
When can you not eat, drink, smoke, or chew gum/tobacco?
- When prepping or serving food
- When working in prep areas
- When working in areas used to clean utensils and equipment
If a food handler has been vomiting and diarrhea, how long must they be symptom free before returning to work?
When must food handlers have a written release from a medical provider?
- Vomiting and diarrhea
What thermometer would you use during the flow of food?
Bimetallic Stemmed thermometer
What range is a bimetallic stemmed thermometer good for?
What thermometer would you use for thick foods and why?
bimetallic stemmed thermometer because it must be inserted up to the dimple
What would you use to check the temperature of thin foods and why?
Thermocouples and thermistors, the sensor is on the tip
What would you use to check the temperature of liquids?(soups, sauces, and frying oils)
What would you use to check the temperature of flat cooking equipment(by touching it)?
What would you use to check the internal temperature of food?
What would you use to check the temperature of coolers and ovens?
What would you use to check the temperature of a surface without touching it?
When must you re calibrate your thermometer?
When it has been bumped, dropped, or extreme temperature changes
A food thermometer must be accurate to within ____ degrees
An air temp thermometer must be accurate to within ____ degrees
How long must must the stem of a bimettallic stemmed thermometer be inserted into the food?
Receiving food after hours is known as _____
key drop delivery
What is ROP food?
- Reduced Oxygen Packaging
- Vacuum-packed food
Cold food should be received at temperatures of ___ or lower
Live shellfish should be received at an air temp of ___ and internal temp no greater than ___.
Once received shellfish must be cooled to ___ within ___ hours.
Shucked shellfish must be received below ___ and cooled to _____ within __ hours.
Milk should be received at ____ and cooled to ___ in ___ hours.
Shell eggs should be received at ___ or lower.
Hot food (TCS) should be received at ____ or higher.
What are two reasons to reject frozen food?
- Fluids or water stains in case bottom or on packaging
- Ice crystals or frozen liquids on the food or packaging
How long can Ready to Eat TCS foods be stored if it is held at 41 degrees or lower?
Seven days, day one being the day it was made
Storage units must have at least __ air temp measuring device/s.
If other foods must be stored with Ready to Eat foods, how would you do so properly?
Store the ready to eat foods on top
In a mixed cooler, what order would you store the following?
Whole cuts of beef or pork
Ready to eat food
Whole and ground poultry
- Whole cuts
You should never use ______ in produce that will be eaten raw, or sell produce that was treated with ____.
What are the four ways to thaw TCS Food?
- Refrigeration at 41 or lower
- Running water 70 or lower
When thawing, never let the temperature of the food go above 41 degrees for more than ___ hours.
Raw seed sprouts should not be served if you primarily serve ______.
What type of eggs should you use when prepping egg dishes that need little or no cooking?
Pasteurized shell eggs
What is the minimum internal temp/time for Poultry
Dishes including previously cooked TCS ingredients
What is the min time/temp for:
Mechanically tenderized meat
What is the min time/temp for:
Commercially raised game
Shell eggs served immediately
What is the minimum time/temp for Roasts?
What is the min temp for:
hot-held for service
When cooking meat, seafood, poultry, and eggs in a microwave, the temp must be ____, and checked in ___ places to make sure it was cooked evenly.
What are the first two steps for partial cooking food during prep?
- Do not cook longer than 60 minutes
- Cool immediatley
What are the requirements for cooling food?
- 1st cool from 135 to 70 within two hours
- 2nd cool from 70 to 41 in the next 4 hours
If you're cooling food and it has not reached 70 degrees in two hours, what must you do?
Reheat, then cool again
How often should you check temps when holding food?
Every two hours
What must you do to hold cold food without temp control for up to six hours?
- Must be at or below 41 for 6+ hours
- Must be labeled
- Must not exceed 70 degrees
You can hold hot food for up to four hours if:
- Held at 135 or higher prior to removing from temp control
- Labeled for four hours
Sneeze guards should go __ inches about the counter and extend __ inches beyond the food.
What would you use to identify significant biological, chemical, or physical hazards at specific points within a product's flow?
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point HACCP
What are the seven steps to HACCP?
- Conduct a hazard analysis
- Determine Critical Control Points
- Establish Critical Limits
- Establish monitoring procedures
- Identify corrective actions
- Verify the the system works
- Establish procedures for record keeping and documentation
Floor mounted equipment must be __ inches off the floor.
Table top equipment must be __ inches off the table top or _____.
- sealed to the countertop
What five things must be at a hand washing station?
- Hot and Cold running water
- A way to dry hands
- Garbage container
What are the time/temp requirements for sanitizing in hot water?
What are the three types of chemical sanitizers?
- Quaternary ammonium compounds (quats)
What is the sanitizer contact time for chlorine?
What is the sanitizer contact time for iodine and quats?
What are the steps to clean and sanitize?
- Scrape or remove food bits from surface
- Wash surface
- Rinse surface
- Sanitize surface
- Allow surface to air-dry
If in constant use, how often should a food contact surface be cleaned and sanitized?
What temp do you need for the final sanitizing rinse in a high-temp machine?
What temp do you need for a stationary rack, single temp machine?
In a three compartment sink, the first sink, full of detergent and water, must be at least ___ degrees