What is Cushings triad??
due to increased intracranial pressure.
you'll have irregular respiration's, Bradycardia and systolic hypertension
What is Hammans sign?
Is a Crunching rasping sound. its the sound of the heartbeat beating against air filled tissues
The AV node usually beats at
40-60 beats per min
Half of the blood gets filtered by the liver. where does the other half of the blood bypasses the liver through the....
the ductus venosus bypasses the liver and goes into the inferior vena cava.
what is the best place to listen for distal air movement.
under each armpit.
When a neo-nate is suffering from hypoxia they respond with....
When pulled out of a fire what is the greatest risk to a person respiratory status
First should be Cyanide poisoning. Hydrogen cyanide is produced when plastics are burning the gas stops mitochondrial aerobic metabolisim and causes cellular asphyxia.
What is the first thing you should do for all burn patients
Keep the patient warm and cover with burn sheets.
What is Stage 4 hemorrhaging characterized by?
Weak or absent core pulses. inadequate respiratory effort and altered mental status of LOC
What should you do for all impaled objects.
Impaled objects should be left in place and to decrease nerve damage and bleeding
Which artery serves the Left ventricle?
Left Coronary arteries cover the left posterior wall. the left lateral wall is covered by the left Circumflex artery.
What is the Optic nerve (2) respomsible for?
our ability to see
what is the oculomotor nerve responsible for?
its responsible for pupil size,shape and reactivity
What is Hypema
when blood collects in the anterior chamber of the eye due to trauma.
What is serious apnea
Apnea lasting longer than 20 seconds or any apnea with bradycardia or cyanosis
what does confrontation mean?
making statements about how the paitet may be feeling its used with behavoiral and psych paitents
what are the three types of bone cells?
- Osteocyte= a mature bone cell(cortical cancellous bones )
- osteoblast= Creates new bony matrix
- osteoclast=Destroys bone by reabsorbing
- mineralized bone
What are the eight bones in the wrist?
Lateral to medial Proximal row: Scaphoid, Lunate, triqutrum, pisiform
Distal row: trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate.
what are the bones of the ankle
- 7 Calcanous, talus and navicular are in the proximal row and the distal row is the
- cuboid, medial cuniform, intermediate cuniform and lateral cuniform.
What is the serous membrane, Viceral and parital pleura
- Serous=the bodys cavities are lined with those
- Vicereal pleura= in contact with the organs
- Parietal=in contact with the body cavity.
what is the cerebrums job?
memory, face recognition and planning speech and emotion
what is the role of:
- Cerebellum=Controls fine movement
- thalamus=Relays sensory impulses to C.Cortex
- hypo= maintain homeostasis
What is the role of the:
- amygdala=libic- fear and anxiety
- hippo= memory, short term to long term conversion
- Pons-regulation of respiratory and cardio function and coordination of eye movements.
- Medulla=HR and BP
What are Vacuoles?
They Store Food and water and waste for later disposal
What poses the greatest risk to your job
What is a Multiplex and simplex system
Multiplex can work simultaneously and simplex is one way.
When parking your ambulance. what is your main goal? and what about helicopters
Scene protection. use your ambulance to protect the scene for helicopter make sure you approch from the front.
when staging where should you be? When backing up an ambulance
several blocks away with the lights and sirens cut off.
you should be in the rear on the drivers side.
clubbing of the finger nails usaully means what?
usually with chronically low oxygen
usually means that its a paitent with long term emphysema and long history of smoking.
What is a full thickness burn
white leathery and charred damaged nerve endings so pain isnt felt
When an individual gets scared what hormones are released?
Catecholamines are released. epi and nor epi are catecholamines. they stimulate the alpha and beta receptors of the sympathetic nervous system.
what does activated charcoal do?
binds to the poison and moves thru the body and comes together as one without being absorbed. the correct adult dosage is 50-70g
at what oxygen rate should you be giving albuterol?
at about 5-8 lpm anything else may cause damage
What should you suspect if a patient has a fever right after you start an IV
They may have pyrogens. it may happen if they had that in the administration set or iv solutions. you'll know by the sudden onset of chills, backache, headache and nausea.
What is the difference between Heat exhaustion and Heat stroke?
heat exhaustion happens from excessive water and sweat loss. heat stroke is when the hypothalmic regulation is lost also when you stop perspireing and probably gain a muscle twitch and convulsions will lead to a heat stroke.
States that the quantity of Nitrogen and oxygen that dissolves in the body tissues when 33 feet below.
bradycardia in an infant is a sign of...
What does infusing hypo tonic solution do..
It causes water to move from the blood stream to the cells.
Estrogen production is promoted by what hormone?
Gonadotropin- testosterone and progesterone production is also promoted by gonadotropin. because of this and and the demands of becoming an adult makes teens an easy risk for depression
what is immediate memory, recent memory and remote memory
- Immediate= names and unrrelated objects
- recent= recalling somthing that happened earlier in the day
- remote=recall events in the past.
What is cranial nerve 1?
cranial nerve one is sensory olfactory for smell. carries information to the olfactory area of the brain.
what is cranial nerve 2
Cranial nerve two is the optic nerve and its sensory. it transmits information to the brain
what is cranial nerve number three
- CN 3 is the oculomotor nerve. this is a motor nerve that..
- Uplifts the eyelid
- superior raise the eyeball
- constricts the pupil for incoming light and several other ocular muscles.
what is cranial nerve number 4
CN 4 is the trochlear nerve. its a motor nerve that supplies the mid brain and handles the eye and the turning of the eyeball
what is crainial nerve 5
CN 5 is motor and sensory. it serves the nose teeth, tounge and eyes. it also has the opthalmic, maxillary and mandibular nerves.
what is cranial nerve number 6
CN 6 is the abducens nerve. its motor and its responsible for laterally turning the eye.
what is cranial nerve number 7
CN 7 is the facial nerve. its motor and responsible for many facial expressions.
what is cranial nerve number 8
CN 8 is the vestibulococlear nerve and its motor and responsible for carrying vesibular and coclear information to the head. but mainly there for balance
what is cranial nerve number 9
CN 9 is motor and sensory and carries information to the brain about the pharynx. and some portion about the tongue and palate and temperature.
motor wise it carries info about the salivary glands and
what is cranial nerve number 10
CN 10 is the vagus nerve. its motor and sensory. its sensory job is to transfer info about the tasting ability of the tongue.
the motor is responsible for pharynx, larynx, esophagus, trachea, bronchi. its also responsible for the heart and palate.
what is cranial nerve number 11
CN 11 is the spinal accessory nerve. its a motor nerve that provides info for the spinal cord and traps, neck and shoulders
what is cranial nerve number 12
CN 12 motor nerve that deals with the movement of the tongue.
what is pulsus paradoxus??
when a patient systolic is dropping 10mmhg for each respiratory cycle. usually associated with COPD, cardiac tamponade, you should not take the time to look for it.
what are corticosteroids used for?
used to decrease inflammation. prednisone and beclometh
what is the tunica intimas job
to aloow blood gasses to and from the tissue
what is the tunica medias job?
elastic fibers and muscle allows it to recoil and is responsible for the presure on the inside and outside of a cell.
What is the Circle of willis?
common term for the joining of the carotid system and vertebobasilar system. the carotid system is anterior and the vertebro basilar is posterior.
what is the junction between the CNS and Endocrine system?
the hypothalmus. it acts as nerve cells and gland cells transmitts messages to glandular response.
what are the 5 classes of immunity?
- Im- G,A,M,D,E
- G-provides passive immunity and long term
- A-most common for mucus secretions
- M-large size and dont leave blood vessels.
- D- found on lymph
- E- baophils and mast cells. for Allergic reactions
what is creatinine?
waste product that is caused by metabolisim of muscles cells.
What are signs and symptoms of anxiety?
palpitations, insomnia, and hyperventilation. its a normal response to stress and can overwhelm a paitent.
what is the pediatric assessment?
looks at Apperance, circulation and work of breathing.
what is becks triad
- used to check for cardiac tamponade
- low Blood pressure
- distended neck veins
- and muffled heart sounds
What is bacteria trachitis
its a bacterial infection that Mainly follows croup and infects children from 1-5
What is Nuchal cord
Nuchal cord is when the babys head is delivered and the cord is wrapped around it. try to unwrap it. or clamp it and cut it.
what are the two main things that cause PID
Gonorrhea and Chlamydia
what sites do Acytlcoline and norepinephrine bind to?
Nor-epi binds to adrenergic receptors in the SNS
Acytlcholine binds to muscarnic receptors and nicotinic receptors in the parasympathic