Upper limb and pectoral region muscles

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  1. Pectoralis major
    • Prox attachment: medial clavicle, sternum, costal cartilages
    • Dist attachment: crest of greater tubercle 
    • Actions: flex humerus (clavicular portion), extend arm from flexed position (sternocostal portion), adduct and medially rotate arm (both together)
    • Innervation: lateral pectoral n (C5-C6); medial pectoral n (C8-T1)
  2. Pectoralis minor
    • Prox attachment: Ribs 3-5
    • Dist attachment: Coracoid process of scapula
    • Actions: rotate glenoid fossa inferiorly, pulls scapula inferiorly and medially
    • Innervation: medial pectoral n (C8-T1)
  3. Subclavius
    • Prox attachment: Rib 1
    • Dist attachment: Clavicle
    • Actions: stabilize clavicle
    • Innervation: N. to subclavius (C5-6)
  4. Serratus Anterior
    • Prox attachment: Ribs 1-9
    • Dist attachment: medial border of scapula
    • Actions: protract and stabilize scapula on trunk, rotates glenoid fossa superiorly
    • Innervation: Long thoracic nerve (C5-7)
  5. Coracobrachialis
    • Prox attachment: coracoid process
    • Dist attachment: medial surface of humeral mid shaft
    • Actions: flex shoulder, adduct arm
    • Innervation: musculocutaneous n (C5-7)
  6. Biceps Brachii
    • Prox attachment: supraglenoid tubercle (long head); coracoid process (short head)
    • Dist attachment: radial tuberosity, bicipital aponeurosis
    • Actions: flex shoulder, flex elbow, supinate forearm
    • Innervation: Musculocutaneous n (C5-6)
  7. Brachialis
    • Prox attachment: distal 1/3 of anterior humerus 
    • Dist attachment: ulnar tuberosity 
    • Actions: flex elbow
    • Innervation: musculocutaneous n (C5-7); Radial n (C5-7)
  8. Triceps brachii
    • Prox attachment: ingraglenoid tubercle (long head); posterior humeral shaft superior to radial groove (lateral head), posterior humeral shaft inferior to radial groove (medial head)
    • Dist attachment: olecranon process
    • Actions: extend elbow, extend shoulder (long head only)
    • Innervation: Radial n (C6-8, T1)
  9. Anconeus
    • Prox attachment: lateral epicondyle
    • Dist attachment: lateral surface of olecranon
    • Actions: stabilize elbow, extend elbow
    • Innervation: Radial n (C7-C8, T1)
  10. Pronator Teres
    • Prox attachment: coronoid process (ulnar head), medial epicondyle (humeral head)
    • Dist attachment: radius
    • Actions: pronate forearm, flex forearm
    • Innervation: Median n (C6-C7)
  11. Flexor Carpi Radialis
    • Prox attachment: medial epicondyle
    • Dist attachment: base of 2nd metacarpal
    • Actions: flex wrist, abducts wrist
    • Innervation: Median n (C6-C7)
  12. Palmaris Longus
    • Prox attachment: medial epicondyle
    • Dist attachment: palmar aponeurosis
    • Actions: flex hand, tenses aponeurosis
    • Innervation: Median n (C7, C8, T1)
  13. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
    • Prox attachment: medial epicondyle (humeral head); olecranon and posterior border of ulna (ulnar head)
    • Dist attachment: pisiform, 5th metacarpal
    • Actions: flex wrist, adduct wrist
    • Innervation: Ulnar n (C7-C8)
  14. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
    • Prox attachment: medial epicondyle and coronoid process (humero-ulnar head), radius (radial head)
    • Dist attachment: base of intermediate phalanges ll-V
    • Actions: flexes proximal interphalangeal joints, flexes metacarpophalangeal joints, flex wrist
    • Innervation: Median n (C7,C8,T1)
  15. Flexor Digitorum Profundus
    • Prox attachment: ulna and interosseous membrane
    • Dist attachment: bases of distal phalanges ll-V
    • Actions: flex distal interphalangeal joints, flex proximal interphalangeal joints, flex metacarpophalangeal joints, flex wrist
    • Innervation: Ulnar n (medial half, C8-T1),Median n (lateral half, C8-T1)
  16. Flexor Pollicis Longus
    • Prox attachment: radius and interosseous membrane
    • Dist attachment: base of distal phalanx l
    • Actions: flex interphalangeal joint l, flex metacarpophalangeal joint l, flex wrist
    • Innervation: Median n (C8-T1)
  17. Pronator Quadratus
    • Prox attachment: ulna
    • Dist attachment: radius
    • Actions: pronate forarm
    • Innervation: anterior interosseous n of median n (C8-T1)
  18. Brachioradialis
    • Prox attachment: lateral humerus
    • Dist attachment: distal end or radius
    • Actions: flex elbow (strongest at mid pronation)
    • Innervation: Radial n (C5-C7)
  19. Supinator
    • Prox attachment: lateral epicondyle, ulna, radial ligaments
    • Dist attachment: proximal 1/3 of radius
    • Actions: supinates forearm
    • Innervation: Radial nerve (C5-6)
  20. Extensor carpi radialis longus
    • Prox attachment: above lateral epicondyle 
    • Dist attachment: base of 2nd metacarpal
    • Actions: extend wrist, abduct wrist
    • Innervation: radial n (C6-C7)
  21. Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
    • Prox attachment: lateral epicondyle
    • Dist attachment: base of 3rd metacarpal
    • Actions: extend wrist, abduct wrist
    • Innervation: deep branch of radial nerve (C7-8)
  22. Extensor digitorum
    • Prox attachment: lateral epicondyle
    • Dist attachment: extensor expansions ll-V
    • Actions: extend MP and IP joints ll-V, extend wrist
    • Innervation: radial n (C7-8)
  23. Extensor digiti minimi
    • Prox attachment: lateral epicondyle
    • Dist attachment: extensor expansion V
    • Actions: extend MP and IP joints V, extend wrist
    • Innervation: radial n (C7-8)
  24. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
    • Prox attachment: lateral epicondyle and posterior border of ulna
    • Dist attachment: base of 5th metacarpal
    • Actions: extend wrist, adduct wrist
    • Innervation: radial n (C7-8)
  25. Abductor Pollicis Longus
    • Prox attachment: ulna, radius, and interosseous membrane
    • Dist attachment: base of 1st metacarpal
    • Actions: abduct pollex, extend CMC joint of pollex
    • Innervation: radial n (C7-8)
  26. Extensor pollicis brevis
    • Prox attachment: radius and interosseous membrane
    • Dist attachment: base of proximal phalanx l
    • Actions: abduct polled, extend CMC and MP joints of pollen
    • Innervation:radial n (C7-8)
  27. Extensor Pollicis Longus
    • Prox attachment: ulna and interosseous membrane
    • Dist attachment: base of distal phalanx l
    • Actions: extends CMC, MP, and IP joints l
    • Innervation: radial n (C7-8)
  28. Extensor indicis
    • Prox attachment: ulna and interosseous membrane
    • Dist attachment: extensor expansion ll
    • Actions: Extend MP and IP joints l, extend wrist
    • Innervation: radial n (C7-8)
  29. Thenar muscles
    • Muscles: abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis 
    • Location: bellies form thenar eminence
    • Innervation: motor recurrent branch of median n (C8-T1); flexor pollicis brevis also receives innervation from ulnar n (C8-T1)
  30. Hypothenar muscles
    • Muscles: abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, opponens dititi minimi
    • Location: bellies of hypothenar eminence
    • Innervation: deep branch of ulnar n (C8-T1)
  31. Adductor pollicis
    • Transverse head and oblique head
    • Location: deep to hypothenar muscles; superficial to interosseous muscles
    • Innervation: ulnar n (C8-T1)
  32. Lumbricals
    • Prox attachments: tendons of flexor digitorum profundus
    • Dist attachments: extensor expansion
    • Actions: simultaneously extend IP joints and flex MCP joints
    • Innervation: Median n (lateral 2 lumbricals), deep branch of ulnar n (medial 2 lumbricals) C8-T1
  33. Interosseous muscles
    • Muscles: palmar interosseous (3; adduct digits ll, lV, & V), dorsal interosseous (4; abduct digits ll, lll, & lV)
    • Location: between adjacent metacarpals, tendons attach distally to extensor expansion
    • Innervation: deep branch of ulnar n (C8-T1)
  34. Palmaris brevis
    • Prox attachment: flexor retinaculum and palmar aponeurosis
    • Dist attachment: skin of palm
    • Actions: Steadies and corrugates skin of palm to help with grip
    • Innervation: ulnar n (C8-T1)
Author
ID
321067
Card Set
Upper limb and pectoral region muscles
Description
Gross Anatomy Unit 2
Updated
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