Leadership and Strategy Essentials

  1. Balanced scorecard
    A long-term strategy implementation tool developed by Kaplan and Norton that guides staff by providing measurable goals and feedback.
  2. Benchmarking
    A method of comparing performance of commodities or services against comparable practices of other organizations or industries.
  3. Best practices
    Techniques, approaches, or methods of conducting business in a manner that has been widely recognized by peers and the industry as generally being the most effective and consistently provides the desired results.
  4. Bubble diagram
    An adjacency diagram that illustrates primary and secondary adjacencies between major work groups or departments.
  5. Chain of command
    The number of reporting authority levels between a given job position and the top authority level in the sequence.
  6. Change management
    A process that involves defining, refining, and implementing plans for changes. It emphasizes overcoming stakeholder and bureaucratic resistance through coordinated communications and stakeholder involvement.
  7. Client profiles/Business unit goals
    Client profiles or business unit goals are summaries of the strategic objectives and requirements, mission, vision, and goals for each business unit within the organization or of each client if the FM organization is an external service provider.
  8. Continual improvement
    A philosophy that emphasizes empowering all team members to seek root causes of problems and recommend small incremental improvements in quality, efficiency, and effectiveness wherever and whenever they are found.
  9. Controlling
    The use of position power to provide a directing or restraining influence over people and inputs, processes, or outputs by observing, measuring, or verifying them through evidence or experiment.
  10. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) policy/Corporate citizenship policy
    A form of organizational self-regulation that integrates the interests of the community and environment into the organization’s business model and extends its bottom line beyond a sole interest in profits.
  11. Customer relationship management
    A business technique that puts the customer first.
  12. Delegation
    A management decision to give employees/contractors full responsibility for planning and execution of a task.
  13. Derived requirements
    Requirements resulting from the analysis of other requirements.
  14. Empowerment
    A management decision to give employees/contractors a limited amount of "decision rights" or authority to make decisions and take actions within their areas of expertise without needing prior approval.
  15. Environmental scanning
    A systematic process of collecting and analyzing external data on market forces, competitor prices and offerings, labor pools, demographic changes, new laws, taxes, and regulations, technology, changing client needs, political or social upheavals, and economic conditions.
  16. External risk
    The chance that uncertain future events outside the direct control of the organization could cause monetary, productivity, profit margin, or market share losses.
  17. Extrinsic rewards
    Benefits given out by managers or other sources based on degree of success or general positive qualities.
  18. Facilities audit/Service audit
    Thorough, periodic reviews that encompass all of the services and assets within a facility.
  19. Facilities Register/Asset inventory/Asset list/Facilities portfolio
    A comprehensive list of the organization’s facility assets including buildings, grounds, infrastructure, equipment, and furniture.
  20. Facility management (FM)
    The practice of coordinating the physical workplace with the people and work of the organization.
  21. Facility master plan/Master plan/real estate master plan/Campus plan
    A detailed long- or mid-term set of specifications and schedule for implementing elements of a strategic facility plan.
  22. Functional/structural model
    A traditional hierarchical organizational structure model that contains specialized functions and uses line management to produce a vertical chain of command for each function.
  23. Functions
  24. Influence
    The ability to affect the actions, opinions, and decisions of others indirectly, rather than through the direct use of position power.
  25. Inspiration
    To enliven the thoughts, emotions, hopes, and actions of others so that they become motivated and enthusiastic to accomplish the goals set by the leader.
  26. Intrinsic rewards
    Inherent benefits of performing a job role or task successfully and do not require intervention by the manager or another source.
  27. Job enlargement
    A job-design approach that includes the horizontal loading of additional tasks, meaning that added tasks are similar in responsibility and effort.
  28. Job enrichment
    A job-design approach that includes a vertical loading of higher-order motivating factors into a job including responsibility, freedom, growth opportunities, recognition, and achievement.
  29. Job simplification
    A scientific job-design approach that emphasizes highly specified and directed work and is appropriate for routine tasks and workers with relatively low skills or confidence.
  30. Just-in-time (JIT)
    A philosophy that uses continual improvement to reduce manufacturing waste, minimize inventory, and get to zero defects.
  31. Leadership
    Guiding and directing others’ actions and decisions through one’s position power and personal influence.
  32. Lean
    A philosophy of minimizing time, assets, and human resources involved in production through simplification to keep only value added activities, training multiskilled employees, and automation.
  33. Line management
    A vertical chain of command reporting relationship in which each management-subordinate relationship increases in specialization as it gets lower in the hierarchy.
  34. Macro programming
    The process of defining user needs at a high level and developing a strategic statement of requirements that reflects general space requirements per person and business unit but omits schedules or detailed analyses of specific spaces/services.
  35. Macrolevel space forecasts
    Organization-wide forecasts that identify major strategic changes in space needs over the planning horizon.
  36. Management
    (1) the conduct of business to accomplish a goal by planning, organizing and staffing, leading, and directing and controlling an organization;

    (2) the judicious use and control of resources and subordinates to achieve business objectives.
  37. Matrix structural model
    A modified functional/structural model that relies on both line and staff management to increase the integration between vertical chains of command or to enable teamwork. Positions with both a line and staff reporting relationship have a dual reporting relationship (i.e., two bosses).
  38. Mission statement
    A sentence that describes the benefit the organization provides to customers and other stakeholders.
  39. Motivation
    The set of factors and influences that impel, direct, and sustain individual or group behavior over time.
  40. Needs assessment
    The process of identifying performance requirements and the "gap" between what performance is required and what resources are available.
  41. Organizational culture
    An expression of the character of an organization as the sum of its organizational values.
  42. Organizational design
    The process of selecting and instituting an organizational structure, rewards, penalties, and policies, procedures, and practices appropriate to the organization’s strategy, size, desire for innovation, constraints, and operating environment.
  43. Organizational development (OD)
    A strategic effort that applies behavioral science to improve the resilience of an organization to internal or external changes and to enhance its ability to proactively solve problems.
  44. Organizational structure
    The formal power structure and hierarchy of an organization and the types and number of job positions per department.
  45. Organizational values
    Collective judgments regarding the relative worth or goodness of behavior, decisions, priorities, or actions of members of the organization.
  46. Organizing
    Creating an appropriate delivery mechanism and structure for an organization to coordinate its components into an interdependent system.
  47. Personal influence
    The power associated with the individual rather than the individual’s position.
  48. Planning
    Setting a direction for an organization in terms of goals, performance objectives, policies, procedures, and practices.
  49. Position power
    Power associated with a person’s position within the organizational hierarchy.
  50. Principled negotiation
    An interest-based bargaining style based on several premises: Separate the people from the problem; focus on interests, not positions, invent options for mutual gain, and insist on use of objective criteria.
  51. Purpose statement
    An expression of the scope and intended use or result of an activity that accounts for priorities and other assumptions or parameters.
  52. Reengineering
    A major rethinking of a process from start to finish.
  53. Relationship management
    The process of developing and maintaining communications with relevant stakeholders and developing and maintaining an understanding of their needs, objectives, character, and constraints so that long-term, mutually beneficial solutions can be created for all parties.
  54. Requirement
    A condition or capability that is necessary for a person or team to solve a problem or fulfill an objective.
  55. Root cause analysis
    The process of discovering the systemic cause of system results.
  56. Silo effect /Stovepipe
    An organizational deficiency that occurs when staff can only think in terms of the needs of their specialty area. [Once work is passed to the next specialty area or "silo" there tends to be a disconnect in tracking the work’s progress and delays between silos become frequent.
  57. Six sigma (6σ)
    A quality management philosophy that involves thoroughly training certain staff to identify and remove defects in processes.
  58. SMART
    An acronym that indicates the necessary elements for goal setting.

    • Specific
    • Measurable
    • Achievable
    • Realistic
    • Time-bound
  59. Span of control
    The number of subordinates directly reporting to a given manager.
  60. Spatial differentiation
    The distance between sites and the total number of sites in an organization.
  61. Staff management
    A horizontal chain of command reporting relationship designed to cut across multiple vertical chains of command.
  62. Strategic objective
    A measurable goal that you commit to achieve by a specific date.
  63. Strategic plan
    An outline of the direction of an organization; it outlines broad, long-term, significant plans and the methods and actions by which the organization will operate.
  64. Strategy
    The science of planning that involves developing a scheme (a program of action to attain a goal), using artful means, or creating an advantageous position to best accomplish important goals.
  65. Stretch goals
    Goals that are deliberately set to be more challenging than SMART goals and usually require opportunities or risks to be realized favorably and/or a significant improvement in processes or results as measured by improvements in quality, quantity, time, or cost.
  66. Success criteria
    The combination of conditions that must be met or satisfied for a project, plan, or task to be considered a success.
  67. Supplier relationship management
    The development of enhanced relationships with key FM suppliers, vendors, and professional service providers to fulfill mutual goals, ensure mutual profitability, meet facility requirements, and build trust.
  68. Tactical plan
    A detailed set of steps needed to accomplish a goal in the strategic plan.
  69. Team
    A group of people who have a common goal and who help each other to achieve that goal.
  70. Total quality management (TQM)
    A formal quality process that includes an intense focus on the customer, involvement of all stakeholders, and quantitative methods for continual improvement.
  71. Vision statement
    The ultimate goal of the organization.
  72. Work coordination
    An organization’s activities, policies, procedures, and practices designed to link the activities of its subunits, teams, and individuals into a cohesive whole while minimizing the overlap of individual tasks and responsibilities.
Card Set
Leadership and Strategy Essentials
the flashcards for the Leadership and Strategy Essentials 3.0 of the FMP