1. What does SnNout mean?
    • Test with high sensitivity
    • (-) test rules out diagnosis
  2. What does SpPin mean?
    • Test with high spesificity
    • (+) test rules in diagnosis
  3. What is false (+)?
    Test indicates pt has disease but in reality pt doesn't
  4. What is false (-)?
    Test indicates pt doesn't have disease but in reality they do have disease
  5. Quantitative research & data analysis
    Statistical data analysis
  6. Quantitative research & researcher participation
    Researcher not participating
  7. Quantitative research & sample size
    Large sample
  8. Quantitative research & questions
    Non-probing, specific research questions
  9. Qualitative research & data analysis
    Non-statistical data analysis
  10. Qualitative research & researcher participation
    Researcher is an active participant
  11. Qualitative research & sample size
    Small sample
  12. Qualitative research & questions
    Probing, global questions
  13. Pre-test-post test control group
    Outcomes of 2 or more groups formed by random assignment
  14. What is crossover design?
    Pt receives both txs (tx & control) with period of no tx
  15. What is case report or case series?
    In depth description of pt's condition or rsponse to tx
  16. What is cross-sectional study?
    Observation - data made 1 time only
  17. What is case control study?
    • Retrospective, obserational study
    • Pts with disease matched with group with no disease
  18. What is Cohort sutdy?
    Longitudinal, observational study - pts followed over time
  19. What is Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT)?
    • Control group & 1 experimental group
    • Control group = no tx/standard tx
  20. Meta-analysis & sample size
    It DEC problem of small sample size
  21. What is meta-analysis?
    • Combining results of several RCTs
    • Estimate of effect size
  22. What is systematic review?
    Comprehensive review of medical literature (Ex: Cochane system review)
  23. What % falls within +3 or -3 SD of mean?
  24. What % falls within +2 or -2 SD of mean?
  25. What % falls within +1 or -1 SD of mean?
  26. In bell curve where are most scores?
    Near the mean, within 1 SD
  27. What does it mean when "P" = .01?
    Higher statistical significance bc there is only 1% probability that the results of study occured by chance
  28. What does it mean when "P" = .05?
    Probability that the results obtained would occur by chance 5% of the time & would occur from tx performed 95% of the time
  29. In Statistical significance "P" values are set at what?
    .05 or .01
  30. Statistical significance refers to what?
    Probability whether or not the results of experiment happened by chance
  31. The bigger the standard deviation, than....?
    The more variable the set of scores or data from study
  32. Standard deviation measures what?
    Variability of the study
  33. What is double blind test?
    Neither experimenter or subject knows who is actually receiving tx
  34. In A-B-C single case design what does C stand for?
    2nd tx or placebo
  35. In A-B-C single case design what dows B stand for?
    1st tx
  36. In A-B-C single case design what does A stand for?
    Baseline measurement
  37. A-B-C single case design
    Adds another independent variable or change, either a different tx or placebo
  38. A-B-A-B design
    • Gives more thorough look at application & effect of independent variable or tx/change
    • Experimenter can see what happens when the tx is in effect & what happens when it is withdrawn
  39. A-B-A design
    No tx (A) --> tx or change (B) --> withdrawal of tx or change
  40. In single case study design what does B stand for?
    • (+) of a specific treatment
    • Applied over a period of time
  41. In single case study design what does A stand for?
    Period of NO treatment or no changes for pt
  42. What is a single case study design?
    When 1 pt, 1 PT, 1 PT department is studied over time
  43. What is included in written informed consent? - 4
    • Info about general nature of what is to take place
    • Any risks to individual & what will be done to minimize the risk
    • Possible benefits
    • Ethical disclosure
  44. What does prevalence mean?
    # of existing cases (new & pre-exisitng)
  45. What does incidence mean?
    # of new cases
  46. What is epidemiology?
    Study of distribution & causes of health related situations in populations & application of information to control health problems
  47. When is Chi square test used? - 2
    • Genetics
    • Population statistics
  48. What does nonparametric mean? - 3
    • Not based on population parameters:
    • Normal - ordinal data
    • Abnormal - interval/ratio
  49. Is Chi square test parametric or nonparametric?
  50. What is Chi square test?
    Tells researcher if the observed pattern, trait or distribution is different than what would have been expected by chance alone.
  51. What does ANOVA do?
    • Can analyze 2 or more independent variables & any interaction between the varibales
    • EX: Researcher looks to determine if there is a difference among 3 exercise protocols that INC ROM. ANOVA will answer the ? as to whether there was a significant difference among 3 protocols
  52. Is ANOVA parametric or nonparametric?
  53. What is Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) mean?
    Statistical test used to determine if there are differences among 3 or MORE groups
  54. T-test and variables
    T-test only used if there is 1 dependent & 1 independent variable
  55. What does parametric test mean?
    • Test of significance based on interval or ratio data
    • Population normally distributed with homogeneity of variance
    • P = 0.05
  56. Is T-test parametric or nonparametric?
  57. What is it called when 1 group is tested 2 times?
    Pre-test Post-test design
  58. What is a T-test? - 2
    • Statistical test used to determine if there is a difference between TWO groups:
    • 2 different groups are matched & tested OR 1 group is tested twice
  59. What is directional hypothesis?
    Generalization predicting an expected relationship between variables
  60. What does it mean when null hypothesis is NOT rejected? - 2
    • No significant difference between groups or treatments
    • P value > level of significance
  61. What does it mean when null hypothesis is rejected? - 2
    • Significant difference was observed between groups or treatments
    • P value < or = level of significance
  62. What is null hypothesis?
    Made prior to data collection that states or predicts a finding of no significant difference between groups or treatment studies
  63. Specificity in research
    Pt will test (-) for a condition they DO NOT have
  64. Sensitivity in research
    Pt will test (+) for a condition they have
  65. What is a dependent variable?
    Variable being measured to determine the outcome (ROM)
  66. What is a independent variable? - 2
    • Variable that is being manipulated by the researcher in the study
    • In research it is the treatment administered to the subjects
  67. What is Subjectivity?
    Testing format that may differ depending upon the persob grading the test
  68. What is objectivity?
    Objective test is designed in a way that regardless of who grades it, the results will always be the same
  69. What is itratester reliability?
    Same tester tries to replicate the measurements & obtain similar results with same subjects and pts
  70. What is intertester reliability?
    2 or more different testers
  71. What is reliability?
    Consistency of the measuring device or procedure
  72. What is validity?
    Extent to which a test, instrument, or procedure accurately measures what it is supposed to measure
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