cross cultural psychology

  1. three theories of how culture originated:
    Terror management theory, the creation of shared reality, an unintended by-product of interpersonal interaction
    • Terror management: Lehman. Culture emerged as a 'buffer against the existential anxiety that results from the awareness of our own mortality'
    • Creation of shared reality: the human need to feel secure in the belief that other experience the world in the same way
    • Unintended by product of interpersonal interaction: social influence occurs in any¬†act of comunication, this happens more regularly and intensively between people who are physically and socially close
  2. What is cross cultural psychology compared to cultural psychology
    • Culture: concerned with an overall understanding of behaviourat the level of an individual culture
    • Cross:¬†comparative study of behaviour in different cultures. The explicit, systematic comparison of psychological variables under different cultural conditions in order to specify antecedents and processes that mediate the emergence of behaviour differences
  3. three theoretical orientations
    • Absolutism: assumes that psychological phenomena are the same across all cultures and so culture plays little to no role in the meaning or display of human characteristics
    • Assess charactersitics without taking culturally based views into account
    • Relativism: assumes that all behaviour is culturally patterned. Human diversity explain in terms of the culture in which a person has developed
    • Assessed using the values and meanings a cultural group gives to phenomena
    • Universalism: assumes basic psychological processes are common to the human species. Culture influences the development and display of behaviour
    • Assessment based on presumed underlying processes but measures are developed in culture specific versions
  4. What are emic and etic methods of cross cultural psychology
    What is equivalence
    • Emic: approach of studying a culture's behaviour from the perspective of an insider
    • Etic: approach of studying a culture's behaviour form the perspective of an outsider
    • Equivalence: degree of similarity of experience or behaviours that allows comparison of them to be meaningful
  5. Acculturation
    process of adapting to a culture other than the one originally identified with
  6. Sojourners and cultural syndromes
    • sojourners: people who join a cultural group for a fixed period of time that is not seen to be permanent
    • Cultural syndromes: clusters of attitudes, values, customs and practices that chracterise a culture
  7. integration
    • Integration: form of acculturation where the old culture is valued as well as the new
    • Assimilation: form of acculturation where the new culture is valued but not the old
    • Separation: form of acculturation where the old culture is valued but not the new
    • Marginalisation: form of acculturation where neither the new culture nor the old culture is valued
  8. culture shock
    stressful experience of encountering another culture
  9. U shaped hypothesis
    Culture learning
    Locus of control
    • U shape: idea that acculturation starts with positive experiences, proceeds to negative and then returns to being positive over course of time
    • Culture learning: acquiring an understanding of, and an ability to share in, the rules and conventions of a culture
    • Locus of control: extent to which people believe that reinforcers and punishers lie inside or outside of their control
  10. multi-cultural vs multi-culturalism
    • Multi cultural: the existence of more than one culture in a group or an activity
    • multiculturalism: set of social and political policies that maintain a multicultural society
  11. cultural distance
    degree of similarity of values, attitudes, customs and practices between people of different cultures
Card Set
cross cultural psychology
cross cultural psychology