What are the types of tongue papillae?
- Filiform: No taste buds.
- Vallate: Largest, least numerous. Have taste buds.
- Fungi-form: Mushroom-shaped. Have taste buds.
- Foliate: Contain most sensitive taste buds.
Taste cells have micro-villi gustatory hairs extending into taste pores.
- Gestation: pregnancy
- Gustation: taste
Which cranial nerve provides anterior 2/3 of the tongue?
Part of VII, carry sensations form anterior 2/3 of tongue. Chorda tympani.
What do cells of the pancreas do?
- Located along small intestine and stomach; retroperitoneal.
- Excocrine gland: Produces pancreatic digestive juices.
- Endocrine gland: Consist of pancreatic islets.
- Composed of:
- Alpha cell: secrete glucagon
- Beta cells: secrete insulin
- Delta cells: secrete somatostatin
What do Parafollicular cells of the Thyroid Gland do?
- Between follicles.
- Secrete calcitonin which reduces [Ca2+] in body fluids when Ca levels are elevated.
What does oxytocin do?
Stretch of the uterus and the uterine cervix or stimulation of the breasts' nipples increases action potentials in axons of oxytocin-secreting neurons.
What are the hormone produced by the ovaries?
estrogen & progesterone
How does Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) get produce? What stimulates the pituitary for ADH to be released?
- Acts on kidney to decrease water loss. Responds to increase in blood osmolality. Responds to decrease in blood pressure.
- If the concentration of electrolytes increases, or if the concentration of water decreases then ADH secretion is stimulated.
- If blood pressure decreases, then ADH secretion is stimulated.
- Increasing ADH acts on the kidney tubules to increase water reabsorption, resulting in reduced urine volume.
What is LH and FSH and Prolactin?
- Both hormones regulate production of gametes and reproductive hormone.
- Testosterone in males.
- Estrogen and progesterone in females.
- GnRH from hypothalamus stimulates LH and FSH secretion.
- Prolactin: role in milk production.
Effects of insulin?
- Increase uptake of glucose.
- Increase of lipogenesis.
- Increase of aminoacids.
Aldestrone secreted in large amounts can cause hypertentision? [T/F]
What is Cushing Syndrome?
Associated with high cortisol level.
What does hyper secretion of adrogen cause in women?
- is a condition of unwanted, male-patterned hair growth in women.
- Possible adrenal tumor.
Aldostrone produce in diminish amounts is that going to cause decrease or increase in blood sodium?
Decreased blood sodium.
What are the different zone of the adrenal gland? What do they produce?
- 1. Zona fasciculata: produces glucocorticoids causes cortisol
- 2. Zona glomerulosa: produces mineralocorticoid that causes aldosterone.
- 3. Zona reticularis: produces androgens that causes conversion to testosterone by peripheral tissues.
The medulla oblongata is innovated by which nerve?
Sympathetic. Neuro crest cells.
PTH produce and response to what?
What are the effects of TSH?
- TSH is produced by the anterior pituitary.
- The TSH is governed TRH from the hypothalamus.
- Acts on the thyroid.
- Thyroid makes T3 and T4.
- TSH causes increase in metabolism.
The posterior pituitary is an extension of what?
Lipid soluble hormones like testosterone and their binding to what?
What is part of the "up" regulation and "down" regulation?
- positive feedback
- Up regulation: some stimulus causes increase in synthesis of receptors for a hormone, thus increases sensitivity to that hormone.
What is the hormone receptor-site?
Being specific. Most hormones are controlled by negative feedback.
Which hormone has an acute pattern of secretion?
Differences between the nervous system and endocrine system?
- Speed of response:
- Nervous system is faster.
- Duration of response:
- Nervous system is faster.
Some parts of endocrine system innervated directly by nervous system? [T/F]
Classes of Chemical Messengers
- Autocrine: act on same cell type.
- Paracrine: acts locally.
- Neurotransmitter: released by neurons.
- Endrocrine: affect distant cells.
Stapes presses next to what window?
Kinetic labyrinth includes what?
What are the cells responsible for hearing?
Paracells. Inner and Outer cells. Inner cells are responsible for hearing.
What is the bony labyrinths for hearing?
What makes the anterior chamber?
What are the muscles in the iris?
- sphincter pupillae; constriction (parasympathetic) in bright light
- dilator pupillae; dilation (sympathetic) in dim light
- Both part of the iris.
What are the tunics of the eye?
- Nervous: retina
Where is the lacrimal gland located?
What is the lateral olfactory area involved?
The conscious perception of smell.
- Colored part of the eye. Controls light entering the pupil.
- Sphincter pupillae: parasympathetic.
- Dilator pupillae: sympathetic.
What is medial canthus?
Has carnucle with modified sweat and sebaceous glands.
Parts of the inner ear
- Medial geniculate: nucleus of the thalamus.
- Basilar membrane: wall of the scala tympanis. basilar membrane.
- Stereocilia: contain hair cells (sensory cells) with hair-like projections at the apical ends. These are microvilli.
- Hair cells arranged in rows of inner hair cells are responsible for hearing and other hair cells regulate tension on basilar membrane.
Secretory products are neuropeptides
epinephrine and norepinephrine
Hormone/receptor site is specific; e.g.,
epinephrine cannot bind to the receptor site for insulin.
- 1. How is renin produce? When renal blood flow is reduced.
- 2. How does renin act? system will lead to secretion of renin directly to blood circulation.
- 3. How is angiotensin I made? in response to low blood pressure, causing transformaiton from angiotensinogen to andiotensin I.
- 4. What cells produce aldosters? juxtaglomerular cells.
- 5. What is the end result? increase blood pressure.