Back muscles

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  1. Latissimus Dorsi
    • Prox insertion: anterior surface of humeral shaft
    • Dist insertion: ??
    • Actions: adducts, extends, & medially rotates arm
    • Innervation: Thoracodorsal nerve (C6, C7, C8)
  2. Trapezius
    • Prox insertion: midline from occipital protuberance along spinous processes to T12
    • Dist insertion: lateral 1/3 clavicle, scapular spine
    • Actions: elevate scapula, rotate glenoid superiorly (upper)
    •             retract scapula (middle)
    •             depress scapula, rotate glenoid inferiorly (lower)
    • Innervation: Accessory nerve (Xl) (just deep to traps)
  3. Levator scapulae
    • Prox insertion: craniomedial corner of scapula
    • Dist insertion: C3-5
    • Actions: elevate and retract scapula
    • Innervation: Dorsal scapular nerve (C3-C5)
  4. Rhomboid minor
    • Prox insertion: medial border of scapula
    • Dist insertion: C7-T2
    • Actions: elevate and retract scapula
    • Innervation: Dorsal scapular nerve (C4-C5)
  5. Rhomboid major
    • Prox insertion: medial border of scapula
    • Dist insertion: T2-5
    • Actions: elevate and retract scapula
    • Innervation: Dorsal scapular nerve (C4-C5)
  6. Serratus anterior
    • Prox insertion: ribs
    • Dist insertion: medial border of scapula
    • Actions: works with traps to raise arm; holds scapula to rib cage; "push up" muscle
    • Innervation: Long thoracic nerve (C5, 6, 7)
  7. Deltoid
    • Prox insertion: lateral 1/3 of clavicle (anterior), acromion (medial), scapular spine (posterior)
    • Dist insertion: deltoid tuberosity (humerus)
    • Actions: flexes and medially rotates arm (anterior)
    •              abducts arm (medial)
    •              extends and laterally rotates arm (posterior)
    • Innervation: Axillary nerve (C5-C6) (terminal branch of brachial plexus)
  8. Supraspinatus
    • Prox insertion: supraspinous fossa
    • Dist insertion: greater tuberosity (humerus)
    • Actions: abduction of arm
    • Innervation: suprascapular nerve (C5-C6)
  9. Infraspinatus
    • Prox insertion: infraspinous fossa 
    • Dist insertion: greater tuberosity (humerus)
    • Actions: external rotation
    • Innervation: suprascapular nerve (C5-C6)
  10. Teres Minor
    • Prox insertion: lateral border of scapula
    • Dist insertion: greater tuberosity (humerus)
    • Actions: external rotation, weak adduction
    • Innervation: axillary nerve (C5-C6)
  11. Subscapularis
    • Prox insertion: subscapular fossa 
    • Dist insertin: lesser tuberosity (humerus)
    • Actions: internal rotation
    • Innervation: upper and lower subscapular nn. (C5-C6)
  12. Splenius Capitis
    • Prox attachment: Cervical spinous processes 
    • Dist attachment: Nuchal line and mastoid process
    • Actions: Extends head/neck (bilateral), flex and rotate head to same side (unilateral)
    • Innervation: Dorsal Rami (cervical)
  13. Splenius Cervicis
    • Prox attachment: Spinous processes of T3-T6
    • Dist attachment: C1/C2 transverse processes
    • Actions: Extends head/neck (bilateral), flex and rotate head to same side (unilateral)
    • Innervation: Dorsal Rami (cervical)
  14. Obliquus capitis inferior
    • Prox attachment: spinous process of C2
    • Dist attachment: transverse process of C1
    • Actions: extend head (bilaterally); rotate head to same side (unilaterally)
    • Innervation: dorsal rami C1 (suboccipital nerve)
  15. Obliquus capitis superior
    • Prox attachment: transverse process of C1
    • Dist attachment: inferior nuchal line
    • Actions: extend head (bilaterally); rotate head to opposite side (unilateral)
    • Innervation: dorsal rami C1 (suboccipital nerve)
  16. Rectus capitis posterior major
    • Prox attachment: spinous process of C2
    • Dist attachment: inferior nuchal line
    • Actions: extend head (bilaterally); rotate head to same side (unilaterally)
    • Innervation: dorsal rami C1 (suboccipital nerve)
  17. Rectus capitis posterior minor
    • Prox attachment: posterior tubercle of C1
    • Dist attachment: Inferior nuchal line (inner 1/3)
    • Actions: extend head (bilaterally); rotate head to same side (unilaterally)
    • Innervation: dorsal rami C1 (suboccipital nerve)
  18. Iliocostalis (cervicis, thoracis, lumborum)
    • Erector Spinae
    • Prox attachment: sacrum, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia
    • Dist attachment: ribs, thoracolumbar fascia, cervical and lumbar v
    • Actions: extend head/neck/spine (bilateral); laterally bend spine to same side (unilateral)
    • Innervation: L1-3
  19. Longissimus (capitis, cervicis, thoracis)
    • Erector spinae
    • Prox attachment: sacrum, iliac crest, lumbar, thoracic, cervical v
    • Dist attachment: 2-12 ribs, lumbar, thoracic, cervical v, and mastoid process
    • Actions: extend head/neck/spine (bilateral); laterally bend spine to same side (unilateral)
    • Innervation: L1-3
  20. Spinalis (cervicis and thoracis)
    • Erector spinae
    • Prox attachment: spinous processes of C5-T2 and T10-L3
    • Dist attachment: spinous processes of C2-C5 and T2-T8
    • Actions: extend head/neck/spine (bilateral); laterally bend spine to same side unilateral)
    • Innervation: L1-3
  21. Semispinalis thoracis, capitis, and cervicis
    • Prox attachment: transverse processes of cervical and thoracic vertebrae
    • Dist attachment: spinous processes of cervical and thoracic vertebrae (more superior)
    • Actions: extend spine and head (bilateral); bend to same side/rotate opposite side (unilateral)
    • Innervation: dorsal rami spinal nerves
  22. Transversospinalis Rotatores
    • Attachments: between spinous and transverse processes
    • Actions: extend spine (bilateral); rotate opposite side (unilateral)
    • Innervation: dorsal rami spinal nerves
  23. Transversospinalis multifidus
    • Attachments: between transverse and spinous processes of vertebrae
    • Extends from sacrum to cervical vertebrae but most dev. in lumbar region
    • Actions: extend spine (bilateral); flex spine same side/rotate opposite side (unilateral)
    • Innervation: L1-5
  24. Teres major
    • Prox attachment: inferior angle of scapula
    • Dist attachment: humerus
    • Actions: extension, medial rotation, adduction of humerus
    • Innervation: subscapular nerve (C5-C6)
  25. Quadratus Lumborum
    • Prox attachment: iliac crest and iliolumbar ligament
    • Dist attachment: 12th rib and transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae
    • Actions: depress rib cage (bilateral); lateral flexion of spine (unilateral)
    • Innervation: T12, L1-4
Author
ID
320798
Card Set
Back muscles
Description
Back muscles
Updated
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