FSN 230 Final

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  1. Fruits
    • Parts of the plant that host the seeds
    • Popular definition: –
    • -Naturally sweet and used as desserts
    • -–Includes tomatoes and olives!!!!!!
    • Picked prior to maturity and ripen in distribution chain
  2. Senescence
    • Stage of overripeness and breakdown
    • Can be controlled by keeping products at low temperatures since ripening is a metabolic (chemical reaction)
  3. Ripe Fruit
    • Optimum succulence and texture
    • Desirable balance between sugars and acids
    • Past optimum ripeness–
    • -Enters senescence: stage of overripeness and breakdown
    • –-Loss of firmness, succulence diminishes, sugars and acids decline in concentration
  4. Fruit Canning
    • Must be heat processed–
    • Commercial sterility
    • Heating containers in boiling water
    • -–T = 180 – 200 °F
    • –-Low pH value
  5. Freezing
    • Needs to be brought down to 0°F or below
    • Held at 0°F after freezing
    • Frozen by:–
    • -Air blast freezing–
    • -Plate freezing
  6. Grapes
    • Mainly grown in California, New York, Pennsylvania, Michigan, and Ohio
    • Products–
    • -Grape Juice,– Vinegar, –Wine, –Raisins, –Jams and Jellies
    • Planted as vines and cuttings from older plants–
    • Produce fruit for many years
    • Can make the most products out of this fruit
  7. Product put on grapes to prevent molding
    • Sulfur dioxide
    • Sulfur dioxide prevents mold growth (antimicrobial properties)
    • If stored periodic sulfur dioxide re-fumigation is required
    • Storage life is 1 to 7 months under proper refrigeration and fumigation conditions
  8. Grape Juice Process
    • 1. washed
    • -- acid or alkaline solutions, water rinse
    • 2. Heat 180 degrees
    • 3. Filtered
    • --Extract pigments, subjected to pressure
    • 4 Pasteurized 170 degrees
    • 5. Enzymes
    • -Break down pectin
    • 6. Filtered
    • 7. Pasteurized. Heat in water at 170 degrees for 30 mins
  9. Wine
    • SO2-> Destroy yeast and bacteria
    • Yeast
    • Sugars->Alcohol + CO2
    • Filtered
    • Bottled or Barreled then bottled
  10. Why is it important to control microbial population in winemaking
    It doesn't go through heat treatment
  11. Raisins
    • Produced from grapes by sun drying or artificial drying
    • Dried until no juice can be squeezed out
    • Continued until 17% moisture
    • Placed in boxes to equilibrate
    • Packed and sold
  12. Artificial Drying of Raisins
    • Dipped in a 0.25-1% lye solution at 200-212°F
    • Treated with SO2
    • Dried at temperatures lower than 165 °F and low relative humidity (25%)
    • Moisture content is lowered to 16-18%
    • Packed and sold
  13. Equilibrate
    Balance out the moisture content between raisins
  14. Jelly Making process
    • Sugar Pectin
    • Brix to 65%
    • pH = 3.0 – 3.2(citric acid)
  15. Apples
    • Grown in every state
    • The trees yield fruit for many years
    • Fertilization of the soil is necessary for good crops
    • Many uses–
    • -Fresh fruit, Juice, Cider, sauce, vinegar, jams
  16. Apple post harvest washing
    Hydrolic Acid HCl or NaOH Sodium Chloride Wash
  17. Apple Sauce
    • Apple sauce goes through thermal process
    • Apples are peeled, cored and sliced
    • Cooked in steam
    • Heated to 190 °F with added sugar
    • Sauce is filled into jars
    • Jars are sealed and heated to 200 °F
  18. Bananas trees
    • Are extremely temperature sensitive
    • Not grown commercially in the US
    • –-Mexico–
    • -Central America
    • -–Colombia
    • -–Brazil–
    • -Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic
    • Trees bear fruit 13 to 15 months after planting
    • Usually handled as fresh fruit
  19. Bananas
    • Treated with fumigants and precooled to 57 – 62 °F
    • Subject to chill injury below 55 °F
    • Low temperatures prevent proper ripening
    • Spoil at temperatures above 70 °F
    • Shipped under controlled temperatures
    • Some are peeled, pureed, and canned for bakery products
    • Such operation requires sterilized equipment
    • No bananas are frozen –
    • Some are dried
    • –Sold as snack items
  20. Orange
    • Utilized as a food to greater extent than other citrus fruit
    • Commercially produced in Florida*, California, Arizona, Texas and Louisiana¾ of oranges are used for frozen juice concentrate and fresh orange juice
    • Picked when solid to acid ratio is between 12:1 and 18:1
    • Dyed in certified food dye at 120 °F for 3 minutes
    • Cooled to 32 to 40 °F or 40 to 44 °F (variety)
    • Held at cool temperatures until sold
  21. Orange Juice Process
    • Harvesting/Collecting
    • Cleaning/Grading
    • Extraction
    • Concentration
    • Reconstitution
    • Pasteurization
    • Packaging/Filling
  22. Oranges Extra Notes
    • Oranges are died to keep orange color
    • How much water added during reconstitution determines sugar content
    • Filtered and enzymes are added to get rid of/break down pulp
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320792
Card Set
FSN 230 Final
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FSN 230 Final Exam
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