BIO Final

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  1. Ovulation takes place in the ________.
    Ovary
  2. Fertilization takes place in the _______.
    Fallopian tube
  3. Implantation takes place in the ________.
    Uterus
  4. Animals/insects capable of asexual reproduction:
    • Whiptail lizard
    • Ants
    • Bees
    • Turkeys
  5. Mifepristone blocks ________ which is needed for pregnancy to continue.
    Progesterone

    (abortion pill)
  6. Thalidomide caused...
    Birth defects in children during 1950's - 60's.
  7. Birth control pill works by...
    stopping ovulation.
  8. Uterine contractions are caused by ______.
    Oxytocin
  9. Heat loss or gain by direct contact
    Conduction
  10. Heat loss or gain by fluid movement
    Convection
  11. Heat loss or gain by electromagnetic energy
    Radiation
  12. Functional unit of the kidney
    Nephron
  13. Nephrons functions:
    • Filtration
    • Secretion
    • Reabsorption
  14. Nephron filters:
    • H2O
    • Glucose
    • NuCl
    • Amino Acid
  15. - Defective V2 Receptor
    - Can't pull water back
    - Causes excessive urination
    Diabetes insipidus
  16. Melatonin
    Regulates sleep cycles
  17. Insulin
    Lowers blood glucose
  18. Glucagon
    Raises blood glucose
  19. PTH
    Raises blood calcium
  20. Endorphins
    Prevent pain
  21. Prolactin
    Milk production
  22. ACTH
    Long term stress response
  23. Growth hormone
    Muscle and bone growth
  24. Posterior Pituitary gland releases:
    • ADH
    • Oxytocin
  25. Middle Pituitary gland releases:
    Melanocyte stimulating hormone
  26. Anterior Pituitary gland releases:
    • Growth hormone
    • FSH/LH
    • TSH
    • ACTH
    • Prolactin
    • Endorphins
  27. Thyroxin (T3, T4) increases....
    Metabolism
  28. Immune system destroys beta cells
    Type I Diabetes mellitus
  29. Receptor becomes insensitive to insulin
    Type II Diabetes mellitus
  30. Antibodies attack thyroxin producing area
    Hashimoto's disease
  31. Antibodies stimulate TSH receptors; Increase metabolism
    Graves disease
  32. Parathyroid releases:
    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) - raises blood calcium
  33. Pancreas - Alpha Cells release:
    Glucagon - raises blood glucose
  34. Pancreas - Beta Cells release:
    Insulin - lower blood glucose
  35. Antibodies attack 21-Hydroxylase
    Addison's disease
  36. 21-Hydroxylase
    is used to make cortisol
  37. Epinephrine
    • Increases HR
    • Increases glucose
    • Increases BP
  38. Cortisol
    • Increases Glucose
    • Increases HR
    • Lowers Immune response
  39. Aldosterone
    • Increases NA+
    • Increases H2O
    • Increases BP
  40. Long term stress response releases _______.
    ACTH
  41. Short term stress releases _______.
    Epinephrine
  42. Pineal gland releases:
    Melatonin - regulates sleep cycles
  43. Hypothalamus' function:
    Releasing hormones; tells other when to release
  44. Protein hormone
    Hook up outside cell

    Example: Insulin; ADH
  45. Steroid hormone
    Enter the cell which then activates a gene

    Example: Estrogen; Testosterone
  46. Usually carry oxygen rich blood away from the heart
    Arteries

    Exceptions: Pulmonary artery; umbilical artery
  47. Usually carry oxygen poor blood to the heart
    Veins

    Exceptions: Pulmonary vein; Umbilical vein
  48. Site of diffusion
    Capillaries
  49. Blood is composed of:
    • 55% Plasma - H2o, NaCl, Clotting factors
    • 45% Cells
  50. Clotting Pathway:
    • Wound
    •                                ↓      ↓  
    •               Tissue Factor + Factor 7
    •                        ↓    ↓   
    • 11 ⇉ 9 + 8 ⇉ 10 + 5 = Prothrombinase 
    •                           needs Calcium + active vit. K 
    • Prothrombin (inactive)=Thrombin (active)
    •  stimulates platelet plug- collagen-W (Von Willerbrand's factor)  
    •    ↓ (Thrombin) ↓
    • Fibrinogen (inactive) ⇉ Fibrin (active)
    •                                       ↓
    •                        forms polymers + 13 = Scab
  51. Hemophilia A:
    Missing factor 8
  52. Hemophilia B
    Missing factor 9
  53. Hemophilia C
    Missing factor 11
  54. Birds have...
    Air sacs for more oxygen storage
  55. Fish use __________ gas exchange.
    Countercurrent
  56. For thermoregulation weak endotherms, such as the great white shark and blue fin tuna, use ______________.
    countercurrent heat exchange.
  57. Digestion starts...
    in the mouth.
  58. Bile
    Breaks down fat
  59. Most digestion & absorption take place in the:
    Small intestine
  60. Digestive system is made up of:
    • Mouth
    • Esophagus
    • Stomach
    • Small intestine- pancreas, live, gall bladder
    • Large intestine
  61. Salivary gland - Parotid releases:
    • Amylase - Starch digestion
    • Lipase - Fat digestion
  62. Stomach is made up of:
    • Mucus cells
    • Chief cells - Pepsinogen (inactive)
    • Parietal cells - H+ (acid)
    • Ec cells - Histamine
    • G cells - Gastrin
  63. Pepsinogen (inactive) + H+ =
    Pepsin (active)

    starts the breakdown of proteins
  64. Protein digestion starts in the...
    Stomach
  65. Liver creates:
    Bile
  66. Gallbladder stores:
    Bile
  67. Pancreas releases:
    • Amylase
    • Lipase
    • Trypsin - protein digestion
    • Chemotrypsin - " "
    • DNAase
  68. Foregut fermenters:
    • Reticulo rumen - bacterial fermentation
    • Omasum - H20 absorption
    • Abomasum - Enzyme digestion

    Examples: cows, deer, camels
  69. B cells
    Make antibodies (IgE)
  70. Nervous system made up of:
    • Neuron
    • Oligodendrocyte - produces myelin sheath in CNS
    • Schwann cell - Produces myelin sheath in PNS
    • Microglia - Immune cells of brain
    • Astrocyte - regulates firing of neurons
  71. Produces myelin sheath in CNS
    Oligodendrocyte
  72. Produces myelin sheath in PNS
    Schwann cell
  73. Immune cells of brain
    Microglia
  74. Regulates firing of neurons
    Astrocyte
  75. Immune cells attack myelin sheath
    Multiple Sclerosis
  76. Virus that attacks oligodendrocytes
    JC virus
  77. Tetrodo Txin
    Blocks NA+ channels; Causes paralysis

    Produced by puffer fish, blue ring octopus, rough skinned newt
  78. Botulinum toxin
    Prevents neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) release

    Botox
  79. Cerebrum controls:
    • Reasoning
    • Higher learning
    • Most emotion
  80. Cerebellum controls:
    Coordination of fine movement
  81. Hypothalamus controls:
    Hunger and thirst
  82. Hippocampus controls:
    • The movement of short term memory to long term
    • Spatial navigation
  83. Medulla controls:
    • Breathing
    • HR
  84. Amygdala controls:
    Traumatic emotions such as fear, rage
  85. Males vs. Females: Traumatic Events
    • Females remember specifics
    • Males remember the gist
  86. In females estrogen releases dopamine in...
    the drug seeking areas of the brain.
  87. Spinal cord:
    • Relays to forebrain
    • Controls movement
    • Controls reflexes
  88. Peripheral Nervous system is made up of:
    Voluntary & Involuntary (autonomic)

    • Voluntary - skeletal muscle
    • Involuntary - parasympathetic; sympathetic
  89. Acetylcholine
    • Muscle - contraction
    • Brain - memory
  90. Neurotransmitters:
    • Acetylcholine
    • Serotonin
    • Dopamine
    • GABA
    • Glutamine
  91. Serotonin
    Mood regulation
  92. Dopamine
    • Fine movement
    • Desire for reward (Pleasure)
  93. Cholinesterase
    Breaks down acetylcholine
  94. Too little serotonin
    Clinical depression
  95. Too much serotonin
    Serotonin Syndrome
  96. Stimulators of H2A receptors:
    • LSD
    • Psilocybin


    (serotonin)
  97. Too little dopamine
    Parkinson's
  98. Too much dopamine
    Schizophrenia
  99. Affects dopamine receptors (DAT):
    • Cocaine
    • Amphetamine
    • Adderall/Ritalin
  100. GABA
    Major inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain
  101. Stimulus of GABA receptors:
    • Valium
    • Librium
    • Xanax
    • Ambien
    • Lunesta
    • Pentobarbital
  102. Glutamine
    Major excitatory neurotransmitter in brain


    Long term potentiation - learning
  103. Blocks NMDA receptor
    PCP
  104. SERT Blockers
    • Prozac
    • Paxil
    • Zoloft
  105. Cholinesterase blockers
    • Sarin - nerve gas; muscle
    • Pricept - brain; Alzheimer's
Author
ID
320594
Card Set
BIO Final
Description
final
Updated
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