Visual features of a pre-aerated flame
Sharp, stable, well defined, blue cone shape.
Visual features of a post-aerated flame
Floppy, unstable, elongated, luminous yellow.
zones of a flame (pre-aerated)
A-B burner head/port
B-C unburnt gas
C - flame front, this is where the combustion process begins.
C-D the reaction zone. This is where the chemical reaction takes place.
D - outer mantle. Is the hottest part of the flame.
what are the 4 intermediary products that are formed during combustion but are not present in the POC when complete combustion occurs.
- Carbon Monoxide.
Flame speed of a ng pre-aerated flame
Flame speed of a propane pre-aerated flame
what is light back and when does it occur
- Gas/air speed too slow,
- Flame front moves downwards into the mixing tube.
- Reaches injector.
What is lift off and when does it occur
- gas/air speed greater than flame speed,
- flame lifts from burner,
- flame may extinguish if mix is outside flammability limits.
What are the properties of a flame
- Conducts a current:
- - ionisation
- - rectification.
- Emits light energy:
- - infra red (IR)
- - ultra violet (UV)
Causes of incomplete combustion:
- Main cause is lack of oxygen to the burner.
- - reduced primary and/or secondary air.
- - inadequate ventilation
- - enlarged injectors/excessive burner pressure
- - vitiated air contaminated with other gases. Oxygen level below 18% accelerates CO production.
- Flame Chilling
- Flame Impingement