1. During development, the ectoderm will develop into the:
    • epidermis
    • skin
    • hair
    • epithelium
    • inner ear
    • lens
    • nervous system
  2. During development, the endoderm will develop into the:
    • pharynx
    • linings of the respiratory and digestive tracts
    • major glands (pancreas and liver)
  3. During development, the mesoderm will develop into the:
    • circulatory system
    • muscular and skeletal system
    • gonads
    • covering of internal organs
    • kidneys
  4. The umbilical cord develops from the:
    • yolk sac (site of early blood vessel development; blood vessels transfer food to the developing embryo)
    • allantois (outpocketing of the gut that contains many blood vessels)
  5. The placenta is formed when:
    the chorion fuses to the fuses to the uterine walls
  6. In six turns, the Calvin Cycle produces:
    6CO2+6RBP-->12 PGAL

    The 12PGAL then recombine to form 6RBP and 1 molecule of glucose, the net product
  7. Sulfur is sometimes found in protein, but never in:
    nucleic acid
  8. Plant spores are haploid. So a spore with 18 chromosomes would mean that:
    The diploid number is 36
  9. The cytoskeleton does NOT make up the cell wall.
  10. Disruptive selection
    When selection acts to eliminate the intermediate type and favor the extremes
  11. Stabilizing selection
    When the extremes are eliminated and the intermediate is increased.
  12. The cerebral cortex (forebrain)
    • Processes and integrates sensory input and motor responses
    • Important for memory and creative thought
  13. Thalamus (forebrain)
    Relay and integration center for the spinal cord and cerebral cortex
  14. Hypothalamus
    • Controls visceral functions such as hunger, thirst, sex drive, water balance, blood pressure, and temperature regulation.
    • Plays an important role in the endocrine system
  15. Midbrain
    • -relay center for visual and auditory impulses
    • -important role in motor control
  16. hindbrain
    • cerebellum
    • pons
    • medulla
  17. cerebellum
    important in balance, coordination, and timing of rapid movements
  18. pons
    enables communication between the cortex and cerebellum
  19. medulla
    controls vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, GI activity
  20. brainstem
    midbrain, pons, medulla
  21. Sensory information enters the spinal cord through the dorsal horn
    Motor information exits the spinal cord through the ventral horn
  22. posterior pituitary releases:
    oxytocin and ADH
  23. anterior pituitary releases:
    • FSH
    • LH
    • ACTH
    • TSH
    • Prolactin
    • GH
  24. Thyroid
    • Thyroid hormones
    • Calcitonin
  25. Pancreas
    • Insulin
    • Glucagon
  26. cardiac muscle
    • striated
    • 1-2 nuclei
    • innervated by the ANS
    • requires Ca2+
    • involuntary contraction
  27. Plant reproduction
    • Stamen - male organ has anther on top which produces pollen
    • Stigma - female organ, site of pollen deposition
  28. Pioneer organism
    first species to inhabit an area that was previously devoid of life. Typically must be able to live in harsh condition. Example: lichens
  29. Area of kidney with lowest solute concentration:
    cortex (the filtrate moves to the higher solute concentration and thus water is reabsorbed)
  30. Two species occupying one niche will:
    always compete for at least one resource
  31. Resting membrane potential depends on:
    • active transport
    • selective permeability
    • Na/K pump
    • differential distribution of ions across the axon membrane
  32. Chlorophyll has a magnesium ion complexed in the middle of it.
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