Humanitarian Aid: The politicisation of humanitarian aid:
- All aid is political
- The rise of consequentialism
- Teleological ethics: actions justified by consequences
- Deontoloigcal ethics: duty based ethics
Humanitarian Aid: How does the OECD define Humanitarian aid assistance
Designed to save lives, alleviate suffering and maintain and protect human dignity during an in the aftermath of emergencies
Humanitarian Aid: What have governments and aid agencies agreed that humanitarian aid should consist of?
Should be consistent with the basic humanitarian principles of humanity, impartiality, neutrality and independence
Humanitarian Aid: How is development aid defined?
- Financial and material resources provided to promote the broader economic development and welfare of developing countries
- May have essentially political goals: engendering political transformations in recipient countries aimed at reducing poverty and promoting economic and social development
Humanitarian Aid: The ethics of humanitarianism:
- The humanitarian imperative - 610 signatures of NGOs
- 1. Humanitarian imperative must come first
- 2. Basis of need alone
- 3. Must not be used to further a paricular religious point
- 4. Not to act as instruments of government foreign policy
- 5. Respect culture
- 6. Build disaster response on local capacities
- 7. Involve programme beneficiaries
- 8. Reduce future vulnerability
- 9. Accountable
- 10. Recognise disaster victims as dignified humans
Humanitarian Aid: Important Actors: Red Cross:
- Red Cross Movement
- International Committee of the Red Cross
- Founded 1863 to help victims of war and armed conflict
- Funded by donations from states party to Geneva conventions (83%) national socieities: $1.85billion
- International Federation of Red Cross (1919) comprised of national socieities in over 100 countries and 100 million volunteers
Humanitarian Aid: Important Actors: Medecins sans Frontiers:
- Speaking out or silent diplomacy? Biafra crisis, Nigeria
- The idea of "temoignage" - "to witness"
- $1.01 billion in 2013. 89% of income from private sources (2013 Financial Report)
How many NGOs singed the Humanitarian imperative - code of conduct?
Humanitarian Aid: When was the Red Cross founded?
Humanitarian Aid: When was the International Federation of Red Cross founded?
Humanitarian Aid: What does "temoignage" mean?
Humanitarian Aid: Where was it that Medecins sans Frontiers spoke out?
Biafra crisis, Nigeria
Humanitarian Aid: What % of income is from private sources in Medecins sans frontiers?
89% of income from private sources (2013 FInancial Report)
Humanitarian Aid: How much income does Medecins sans frontier get in 2013?
Humanitarian Aid: Changing humanitarian aid?
- Increase in number of natural disasters and continuation of human caused disasters
- Greater diversity of humanitarian actors - complexity?
- Increased politicisation of humanitarian aid
Humanitarian Aid: Challenges to humanitarianism
- Complexity and coordination
- Masking responsibility
- The problems of consequences
- Questions of risk and security
Humanitarian Aid: Complexity and coordination?
- 2004 Asia Tsunami
- Lots of money generated, distributed to 10 big NGOs and over 190 smaller ones
- Problems in coordination, effectiveness and distribution
Humanitarian Aid: 2013 Typhoon Haiyan
- More effective
- Lessons learnt
- "Cluster organisation"
- Good links with government
Humanitarian Aid: The issue of risk
- 2014: 329 aid workers killed, kidnapped or seriously wounded
- 2003-2013 - aid working worker kidnapping quadrupled (HO, 2014)
Humanitarian Aid: Budgets and staffing of humanitarian organisation 2010
- NGOs - $7.4 billion (141,400 field staff)
- UN - $9.3 billion (85,000)
- Red Cross - $1.2 billion (47,000)
Humanitarian Aid: Conclusions
- Humanitarians have always faced challenges and dilemmas e.g. being associated with political interests, poor coordination, not meeting needs, possibility of creating dependency and other unintended consequences
- However, in the past 2 decades, these have increased because of a number of factors:
- Power of the media to mobilise huge amounts of money
- Acceptance of the politicisation of aid by donor governments and its use for national security interests
- Use of the military to deliver aid
- Concerns about negative consequences for potential recipients and aid workers