Humanitarian Aid - Institutions of Aid

  1. Humanitarian Aid: The politicisation of humanitarian aid:
    • All aid is political
    • The rise of consequentialism
    • Teleological ethics: actions justified by consequences
    • Deontoloigcal ethics: duty based ethics
  2. Humanitarian Aid: How does the OECD define Humanitarian aid assistance
    Designed to save lives, alleviate suffering and maintain and protect human dignity during an in the aftermath of emergencies
  3. Humanitarian Aid: What have governments and aid agencies agreed that humanitarian aid should consist of?
    Should be consistent with the basic humanitarian principles of humanity, impartiality, neutrality and independence
  4. Humanitarian Aid: How is development aid defined?
    • Financial and material resources provided to promote the broader economic development and welfare of developing countries
    • May have essentially political goals: engendering political transformations in recipient countries aimed at reducing poverty and promoting economic and social development
  5. Humanitarian Aid: The ethics of humanitarianism:
    • The humanitarian imperative - 610 signatures of NGOs
    • 1. Humanitarian imperative must come first
    • 2. Basis of need alone
    • 3. Must not be used to further a paricular religious point
    • 4. Not to act as instruments of government foreign policy
    • 5. Respect culture
    • 6. Build disaster response on local capacities
    • 7. Involve programme beneficiaries
    • 8. Reduce future vulnerability¬†
    • 9. Accountable
    • 10. Recognise disaster victims as dignified humans
  6. Humanitarian Aid: Important Actors: Red Cross:
    • Red Cross Movement
    • International Committee of the Red Cross
    • Founded 1863 to help victims of war and armed conflict
    • Funded by donations from states party to Geneva conventions (83%) national socieities: $1.85billion
    • International Federation of Red Cross (1919) comprised of national socieities in over 100 countries and 100 million volunteers
  7. Humanitarian Aid: Important Actors: Medecins sans Frontiers:
    • Speaking out or silent diplomacy? Biafra crisis, Nigeria
    • The idea of "temoignage" - "to witness"
    • $1.01 billion in 2013. 89% of income from private sources (2013 Financial Report)
  8. How many NGOs singed the Humanitarian imperative - code of conduct?
    610 NGOs
  9. Humanitarian Aid: When was the Red Cross founded?
  10. Humanitarian Aid: When was the International Federation of Red Cross founded?
  11. Humanitarian Aid: What does "temoignage" mean?
    To witness
  12. Humanitarian Aid: Where was it that Medecins sans Frontiers spoke out?
    Biafra crisis, Nigeria
  13. Humanitarian Aid: What % of income is from private sources in Medecins sans frontiers?
    89% of income from private sources (2013 FInancial Report)
  14. Humanitarian Aid: How much income does Medecins sans frontier get in 2013?
    $1.01 billion
  15. Humanitarian Aid: Changing humanitarian aid?
    • Increase in number of natural disasters and continuation of human caused disasters
    • Greater diversity of humanitarian actors - complexity?
    • Increased politicisation of humanitarian aid
  16. Humanitarian Aid: Challenges to humanitarianism
    • Dependency
    • Complexity and coordination
    • Masking responsibility
    • The problems of consequences
    • Questions of risk and security
  17. Humanitarian Aid: Complexity and coordination?
    • 2004 Asia Tsunami
    • Lots of money generated, distributed to 10 big NGOs and over 190 smaller ones
    • Problems in coordination, effectiveness and distribution
  18. Humanitarian Aid: 2013 Typhoon Haiyan
    • More effective¬†
    • Lessons learnt
    • "Cluster organisation"
    • Good links with government
  19. Humanitarian Aid: The issue of risk
    • 2014: 329 aid workers killed, kidnapped or seriously wounded
    • 2003-2013 - aid working worker kidnapping quadrupled (HO, 2014)
  20. Humanitarian Aid: Budgets and staffing of humanitarian organisation 2010
    • NGOs - $7.4 billion (141,400 field staff)
    • UN - $9.3 billion (85,000)
    • Red Cross - $1.2 billion (47,000)
  21. Humanitarian Aid: Conclusions
    • Humanitarians have always faced challenges and dilemmas e.g. being associated with political interests, poor coordination, not meeting needs, possibility of creating dependency and other unintended consequences
    • However, in the past 2 decades, these have increased because of a number of factors:
    • Power of the media to mobilise huge amounts of money
    • Acceptance of the politicisation of aid by donor governments and its use for national security interests
    • Use of the military to deliver aid
    • Concerns about negative consequences for potential recipients and aid workers
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Humanitarian Aid - Institutions of Aid