INGOs - Institutions of Aid

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  1. When was the term INGOs first used?
    1945
  2. INGOs: How many INGOs were there in 1872?
    32 organisations
  3. INGOs: How many INGOs were there in 1954?
    About 1,500
  4. INGOs: How many INGOs were there in 1990s?
    Over 40,000
  5. INGOs: Issues of definition
    • What is an "international NGO"
    • Pre 1990: fundraising and campaigning HQ in donor countries, offices in aid recipient countries implementing projects sometimes through partners
    • 2016 Action Aid - NGO break down imperial project
    • BRAC? first NGO initiated in Souther country which went viral
  6. INGOs: The emergence and rise of INGOs:
    • Term first used in 1945 by UN but charities, voluntary and welfare associations been around since at least mid 19th C
    • 1839 - Anti-Slavery International
    • 1863: Red Cross
    • 1920: League of Nations
    • Most present day NGOs were formed post WW2
    • Many have roots in religious or missionary organisations
  7. INGOs: 1980s: INGOs as heroes
    • Distinct and progressive values
    • Independent from northern governments
    • Circumventing corrupt recipient governments
    • Awareness raising about poverty
    • Closer to "poor people" - giving them voice
    • Effective and efficient service delivery
    • Building the capacity of southern NGOs
    • Rapid responders in humanitarian events
    • Able to influence corporations and donors
  8. INGOs: 1990s: Too close for comfort?
    • Desire for growth compromised mission and values:
    • Relationship with official donors reduced independence
    • Representation to raise money from public unethical
    • Relationships with business leading to co-optation
    • Disasters used to leverage money
    • Little evidence of being effective
    • Create dependency not social change
    • Unrepresentative: Advocacy not representing poor people
    • Patronising/imperialist: huge power imbalances in relationships with partners
  9. INGOs: Dilemmas: more info
    • Poverty vs. rights: What will donors support?
    • Critique that official aid not supportive of rights based approachesĀ 
    • Critiques ignore that:
    • Some official donors more progressive than some BINGOs
    • Some voluntary funding e.g. from child sponsership more conservative than official aid
  10. INGOs: Voices of the poor or unrepresentative elites:
    • Critique BINGOs do not represent poor people in global policy spaces
    • Critique ignores:
    • Recent bottom up efforts to global campaigns such as the Global Campaign for Education
    • Staff operating in national policy spaces are local citizens
  11. INGOs: Dilemmas: Universalist aspirations vs complexity of local contexts:
    • INGOs gain legitimacy in the North by adopting universal standards
    • Corporate engagement:
    • Some evidence BINGOs have influenced corporate responsibility
    • However critiques argues:
    • likely to be co-opted through process of relationships
    • Critique ignores BINGOs (are) selective about whom they accept money from?
  12. INGOs: Conclusion:
    • INGO popularity and legitimacy has waxed and waned
    • Academic critique justified but a bit simplistic given differences between organisations and challenges
    • INGOs face interesting times ahead - will they be able to sustain legitimacy and survive in traditional formss
  13. INGOs: Problems with critiques:
    • Does not:
    • Fully acknowledge BINGOs efforts to respond to challenges
    • Differences between BINGOs: histories, countries of origin, cultures, values, funding base, core business
    • Differences "battles of knowledge" within:
    • Staff from different disciplinary backgrounds in HQ
    • Staff from different cultures and backgrounds who staff and increasingly manage country programmes
    • Tends to ignore "success" stories e.g.
    • Christian Aid's support for:
    • Challenging traditional power relations between children and adults and having significant impacts on policy and health in Africa
    • Money: Does Size matter?
    • Critique fails to explore the complex reasons BINGOs pursue growth:
    • Visibility and legitimacy - assumed to increase policy influence
    • Belief that better than competitors
    • Desire to influence donors through funding relationships
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INGOs - Institutions of Aid
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