What is anime? How is is different from manga?
Anime refers to Japanese animation, often derived from their comics known as manga. Much of anime contains mature themes, developed storylines, linear plots, aspects of violence, drama and comedy.
What are common themes in Anime?
- 1. Respect for ancestors and elders
- 2. Loyalty
- 3. Honesty and integrity
- 4. Importance of resilience
- 5. Value for education
What is the difference between cartoons and anime?
Cartoons are typically produced in the west and are mainly targeted towards kids. It is considered weird for adults to watch cartoons due to its humorous themes specifically designed for children, and deformed drawing styles. On the other hand, anime which is produced in Japan is known for its mature content and deep themes which is available to all ages. The characters are characterized for their eyes and stories follow a plot.
List some techniques used in anime?
- Scrolling repeated backgrounds
- Still shots of characters action poses sliding across screen
- Lips move up and down, it is not in synch with words
- 60% of anime is based on manga stories
What are the three critical readings?
- Critical readings present multiple ‘view points’ of a meaning in the text. Three types of readings are:
- Post colonial– Asks you to consider the perspective of indigenous people in the test
- Feminist reading– Presents women as the main concern of the text
- Marxist reading– Focuses on money and social class
Why does anime contain realism?
Anime shows feature extremely complex fantasy settings that have their own unique and intricately woven history, politics and complex character backgrounds. Compared to western cartoons, it directly exposes people to the darker aspects of life such as blood violence, drinking, mature themes and murder which is considered acceptable for children to watch since they are preparing for what is to come in life through watching this.
Name some typical anime features?
- The sweat drop– When nervous or scared, large rolls of sweat appears
- Throbbing vein– Elucidates the emotion of anger
- Bandage– When hurt, this appears but disappears later
- Stunned crowds– Gasping audience due to something startling
What is the purpose of those typical anime features? (that is the sweat drops)
The purpose of these clichés is not realism, rather it gives the audience an understanding of what the character is feeling
Explain how Japanese culture is strongly evident in 'Howls Moving Castle'.
Most anime embed aspects of Japanese culture within their films such as Howls Moving Castle. This anime encrypted the ideology of respecting elderly people with the use of the character actions. This is evident in the scene when the main character, Sophie became an old women and had just met the young boy named Markl. Although they weren’t well acquainted, Markl helped Sophie when she was cooking by passing her all the equipment she asked for without question. This elucidates the notion of having respect for elders as they are more wise and knowledgeable since they understand life. Over all, the specific aspect of having respect for elders as part of Japanese culture was strongly evident in the film through the characters actions.
Explain the theme of feminism in 'Howls Moving Castle'.
An integral aspect of feminism involves empowering women. The director of Howls Moving Castle, Hayao Miyazki, integrated this idea within his film to teach girls that they are equally strong and independent as boys. He did this by ensuring the lead character, Sophie, was a female. She has plain features with thick eyebrows and thin lips. In the very beginning of the film, she briefly encountered Howl who was known to “steal hearts of young girls”. She immediately refutes this by stating “I'm not pretty, he can’t steal my heart”. By analysing this, it is evident that she has low self esteem. However, later on in the film, she slowly becomes stronger and is able to encourage Howl to fight in the war and overcome his fears, and as a result she saved the day. Miyazki shows that girls do not have to look pretty in order to achieve great things in life, and not all heroes are males.
Explain how the theme of having an identity is present in 'Howls Moving Castle'.
Identity is being able to relate to the fact of a who a person is. This is an ongoing theme in Howls Moving Castle and is demonstrated through the changes in hair colour of the characters. The main character, Howl, shows his self consciousness about his hair colour. When his hair colour had changed from blonde/silver to black, he immediately became extremely depressed about it, however when he was able to redye it back to its original colour, his self esteem improved, thus implying he is able to relate to who he is, which is a fashionable gentlemen, through his hair colour. Another example is of Sophies hair. Since she was cursed by the witch, her hair colour turned gray, however in certain scenes, when she is sleeping, it returns to its original colour. This symbolises how she is unsure of her identity due to her moving phases.
Does identity always match outside appearance?
No, it can be what they physiologically connect with as well, for example, Sophie became stronger when she was old compared to when she was young, thus she formed her new identity as a strong woman.
What was Pentstemmon's commentary on Sophie's stick?
She tells Sophie: "I like your gift […] It brings life to things, such as that stick in your hand, which you have evidently talked to, to the extent that it has become what the layman would call a magic wand." When Mrs. Pentstemmon mentions the power of Sophie's walking stick, what starts out as a symbol of Sophie's old age and physical frailty suddenly becomes proof of her strong magical power. And once Sophie has realized what potential her stick actually has, she starts to admit to herself that she has a lot of talent—a sign that she's overcoming her despair at being the eldest sister of three in a country where birth order can mean the difference between failure and success.
Name elements of symbolism present in 'Howls Moving Castle'.
- The Castle– Is a symbol of Howls personality. It breaks down when he broke down. The castle also changes positions when Howl changes his ideas and movements. This symbolises how they are interconnected
- Calcifer- Symbolises heart of the castle and Howl
- Castle- Becomes Sophies house as she takes responsibility of it=growing friendship=overcome his fears
- Sophie’s gray hair– Changes back and forth, wisdoms
- Dark colours– Evil characters
Key themes to remember
- Resilience– Sophie stayed strong when old
- Exaggerated expressions when Howl was nervous
- Fat tears when Sophie was crying
- Exaggeration of throbbing veins and sweat
What is a social issue present in 'Howls Moving Castle'?
Miyazaki grew up in Showa period of Japan– Mountains and rivers destroyed for economic progress. Contrasted this with castle (machine in peace with nature, not polluting it )
How is Japanese culture present in 'Spirited Away'?
In the film Spirited Away, Japanese culture is strongly evident through the use of characters and their actions, one being having respect for ones master as they hold power. This is shown when Haku went to his master, Yubaba, and commanded her to free Sen (Chihiro). Yubaba was taken aback by his rudeness and states “ that is not how you speak to your master!” reminding him of the Japanese cultural value he must uphold. Thus, Japanese culture is reflected through the use of character actions in the film.
How is the theme of feminism portrayed in 'Spirited Away'?
Many westernised cartoons feature a male hero who saves the weaker females. Hayao Miyazki, the director of Spirited Away wanted to contrast with idea since he wanted girls to be able to look up to real female models rather than boyfriend magazines. He achieved through his film Spirited Away. The protagonist, Chihiro, is a young girl who is reluctant about moving houses. Her journey intensifies when she stumbles into an abandoned theme park where her parents turn into pigs and her only way of surviving is to assimilate into the world of mutants. Through this epic journey, the director shows how she builds her character into a strong, independent girl who is ready to fight anyone to save her parents. Thus, the feminist reading provides people with the idea that not all saviours have to be males with muscles, rather, they can females with determination and courage.
Miyazaki makes a social commentary in 'Spirited Away', what was it?
Miyazaki was making commentary in some aspects of the film such as hygiene. Japanese culture states cleanliness is important and that spirits help preserve nature. An incident from real life was inserted when Sen pulled the bike out of the river spirit by cleansing it with water. Miyazaki was making a comment on the environment in Japan, it is constantly being destroyed by pollution. After Sen cleansed the spirit she received a small edible ball as a reward,which was used later to heal Hakus impurity in the the scene where he swallowed a golden seal with magic on it, therefore conveying the healing and replenishing nature of water and the importance of it.
Name elements of symbolism in 'Spirited Away'.
- Train– Symbolises a one way ride to the after life, that's why figures are faded people
- Crow– A force of evil
- Yubaba's big head– Big ego
- Dark colours– Evil character
Why does Chihiro fit into the genre of anime?
Realism- She is seen as a typical 10 year old, whinging and whining about moving houses, sticking her tongue out when she sees her school, tapping her toes in her shoes to ensure it fits, ignoring when parents call her name. She also has exaggerated facial features.
Name key themes present in 'Spirited Away'.
- Greed– When Yubaba saw the gold
- Growth– Sen had to grow up quickly when she entered bath house
- Patience– Chihiro was patient through out the film
Name similar themes present in 'Howls Moving Castle' and 'Spirited Away'
- 1. Courage
- 2. Importance of resilience
- 3. Change
What is a sonnet?
Sonnets are 14 lined poems usually about love, has 3 quatrains, a rhyming couplet at the end along with a Volta ( a shift in the poems subject matter)
What is alliteration, what effect does it have?
- When the first letter of a word is repeated in other words, e.g better bought bitter butter!
- It makes the words stand out more and creates a rhythm
What is assonance? What effect does it have?
- Repeated vowel sounds in words placed near each other
- Like alliteration, it emphasizes the words, and indicates it should be read in an accent or with stress to bring out its full essence
What is consonance? What effect does it have?
- Repeated consonant sounds at the ending of words placed near each other
- Effect is it should be accented, stressed, for emphasis, produces a pleasing sound
What is onomatopoeia? What effect does it have?
- Words that sound their meanings
- Adds more weight on the words and allows for visualisation
What is repetition? What effect does it have?
- Reusing words in a sentence
- Emphasis on specific words for a greater meaning
What is rhyme? What effect does it have?
- Sentences that have endings sounding alike
- Creates rhythm, fun to read, interesting, play of words, deeper meaning
What is allegory?
When characters and events are symbols that stand for ideas about human life or for a political or historical situation
What is allusion?
A brief reference to something
What is apostrophe?
Speaking directly to a real or imagined character
What is euphemism?
- An understatement used to lessen the effect of a statement. A nice way of saying something bad.
- (she is at rest instead of saying she is dead)
What is hyperbole?
- An outrageous exaggeration used for effect
- (He weighs a tonne!)
What is irony?
- A contradictory statement which reveals a reality different from what appears to be true
- (The biggest dog's name is Tiny)
What is metaphor?
- A direct comparison between two unlike things, stating that one is the other
- (He is a zero)
What is oxymoron?
- A combination of two words that appear to contradict each other
What is paradox?
- A statement where a contradiction may reveal unexpected truth
- (the hurrier I go, the behinder I get)
What is personification?
Attributing human qualities to something that is not human i,e. animals, non-living things
What is simile?
a direct comparison to two unlike things using "like" or "as"
What are the two types of sonnets?
Elizabethan Sonnet- Three quatrains, a rhyming couplet, abab cdcd efef gg, turn is after eight or nine lines
Italian Sonnet- Includes an octave (eight lines) and a sestet (six lines), rhyme scheme is abbaabbaa, any variation of c,d,e, turn occurs between octave and sestet
What are the two parts sonnets can be divided into?
- 1st section- Theme is shown, issues and doubts are present
- 2nd section- Answers questions in the 1st part or resolves the problem or reinforces whole poems point
This change in poem is called the 'turn' and helps move forward into tone and action of the poem quickly
What are themes present in sonnet 29? HINT- Isolation
The sonnet starts very resentfully and enviously, as the speaker talks about being in “disgrace with fortune and men’s eyes” but as it goes on it becomes apparent that the source of the speaker's bad mood is that he is not with a friend whom he loves. The bad mood is therefore driven by loneliness. But then the speaker's mood starts to change. This is brought on by thoughts of the friend he loves. He starts to feel like “the lark at break of day arising, from sullen earth, sings hymn at heavens gate”. The conclusion of the speaker is that despite his feelings of loneliness because his friend is not around, just thinking of him makes him feel good again. He even scorns “ to change my state with kings."
What are themes present in Sonnet 29- HINT- Wealth
In Sonnet 29, Shakespeare is toying with the differences between spiritual wealth and economic wealth. When the sonnet opens, the speaker feels spiritually bankrupt, as he “troubles deaf heaven with my bootless cries” , indicating he's lost all hope and feels like God doesn't care about him. At the same time, the speaker states he is “in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes”, hinting economic hardship as he feels nothing is going his way, and that part of this is he may be down with financial luck. In the end, however, the speaker decides that the memory of someone's "sweet love" is enough to make him feel such personal and spiritual "wealth" that he wouldn't trade places with the richest and most powerful of men on earth.
What are themes present in Sonnet 29- HINT- Isolation II
For the first 8 lines of the sonnet, the author heavily emphasizes that he's got zero friends, since he states the he “alone beweeps” his “outcast state”, also suggesting that no one feels sympathy towards his sadness. He also says that God has been ignoring him we he “troubles deaf heaven” with his “bootless cries.” There's evidence that our speaker is physically isolated as well—the sonnet makes it clear that he's been separated from someone who loves him. In the end, the speaker finds comfort in his memory of the person's love, implying that loved ones can be with us in spirit, if not physically present in our lives.
What are themes present in Sonnet 29- HINT- Religion
When the sonnet opens, the writer complains that God's been giving him the cold shoulder during one of the worst moments in his life. As he states, he constantly troubles “deaf heaven with my bootless cries”, with ’deaf heaven’ meaning God is choosing not to hear his cries. However, he “haply thinks of thee” which he compares to “like to the lark at break of day rising, from sullen earth, sings hymns to the heavens gates”, which is a major shift from the his previous statement. He is seen to have changed his thoughts about God and praises heaven as he remembers this person.
What is power?
It is the ability to influence others. Usually displayed when one person wants to make a name for themselves and it is expressed with words, tones and actions.
What is informational power?
This is when something is known to one person, but is unknown to the rest. They are generally viewed as powerful since they hold this knowledge and is able to persuade people into doing things because of this knowledge, for example, a man who knows how much he earns is viewed as knowledgeable about money
What is coercive power?
When someone uses physcological or physical force in imposing their ways on another person, assuming that others are resistant or opposed. An example is threats and aggression because it involves getting ones way realised at the expense of others getting theirs, example parent forcing someone to go to uni if they don't want to
What is reward power?
This is when you can influence people with the promise of providing something that is either physically or physiologically beneficial for them, for example, giving a lolly to shut a crying kids mouth
What is referential power?
This is when you have positive feelings for someone and it aids in making alliances with them, especially if other want to make those they care about happy, example friendship
What is expert power?
Based on education, training or experience that is relevant to the issue on hand.
What is power relationships?
This is when there is an imbalance of power between people involved. Often, one is more powerful than the other and they feel strong and in control of themselves and the situation. The lesser powered person will feel abused and generally put up with controlling and manipulative ways
How does the play reflect the concept of power?
The concept of power is prevalent in the play through its different forms, mainly informational power and coercive power. In the very beginning of the play, Macbeth is greeted by the witches through his noble title “ Thane of Glamis” whom he already was, then as “Thane of Cawdor” and then as “the future king”, both titles which he hadn't received. This is what begins to ignite his ambition to become the king, thus indicating had he not have known this, he may have not committed murder. Thus, indicating how the witches are seen to hold power due to their knowledge. Another concept throughout the play was coercive power, portrayed through the words of Lady Macbeth. When she heard of the witches prophecy, she immediately realised that “thys nature is too full of th’ milk of human kindness” which will diminish his desire to seize the crown because he has a conscience. To prevent this from happening, she uses a psychological force on him by asking “art thou afeared to act the same in thine own act and valor as thou art in desire? Wouldst thou have that which thou esteems' the ornament of life, and live a coward in thine own esteem, letting “i dare not” wait upon “i would” like the poor cat i’thi’ dagger?” Thus, questioning his bravery to act, making him rethink on his cowardly behaviour.
Explain the significance of Lady Macbeths soliloquy.
In act 1 scenes 5-7, Lady Macbeth testifies her will and strength which completely overshadows Macbeth, she is aware that she has to manipulate her husband in acting on the witches prophecy. Her first soliloquy begins the exploration of gender roles, especially on the nature of masculinity when she cries out “unsex me here!”, and wishing the milk in her breasts be turned into poison, these remarks manifest Lady Macbeths belief that manhood is defined by murder.
Explain how Macbeths conscience is portrayed in the play but ambition gets in his way
The notion that Macbeth possess a conscience is clear in Act 2 when he starts hallucinating of his upcoming crime. He is plagued by the hallucination of a “dagger which I see before me”. The visions are seen to come from his “heat– oppressed brain”. The descriptive language conveys that he is feeling guilty already due his ambition which drives him to commit the murder. In addition, his ambition is seen to surpass his conscience at the end of his monologue as he claims that “while I threat he lives/words to the heat of deeds too cold, breath gives”. The emotive language and dramatic irony of this scene reinforces the notion that Macbeth does posses a conscience but also has a tragic flaw, ambition, which makes him yearn for power, overall, leading to his downfall.
State some key quotes to remember from Macbeth, you should have a total of 15 quotes.
- "fair is foul and foul is fair"- Witches
- "thys nature is too full of th’ milk of human kindness"- Lady Macbeth on Macbeth
- “unsex me here!”- Lady Macbeth
- “dagger which I see before me” coming from Macbeths “heat– oppressed brain”
- “while I threat he lives/words to the heat of deeds too cold, breath gives” This means the more he talks about killing Duncan, the more his courage cools- Macbeth
- "vaulting ambition"- Macbeth
- "the deed"- Macbeth
- "should against the murders shut the door, not bear the knife myself"- Macbeth
- "Hie, thee hither, that I may pour spirits in thine ear, all that impedes thee from golden round" She is talking her husband out of whatever is stopping him from seizing the crown- Lady Macbeth
- "proceed no further in this buisness" because he "hath honoured me"- Macbeth
- "When you drust do it, then you were a man!" - Lady Macbeth
- "I dare to all that may become a man; Who dares do more is none"- Macbeth
- "if we should fail"- Macbeth
- "Soundly invite his two chamberlains" and make them so drunk that their "memory, the warder of the brain shall be a fume"
- "and bend up each corporal agent to this terrible feat" This means he is ready to exert every muscle into the crime - Macbeth
What is longest quote said by Lady Macbeth which questions Macbeths manliness?
“art thou afeared to act the same in thine own act and valor as thou art in desire? Wouldst thou have that which thou esteems' the ornament of life, and live a coward in thine own esteem, letting “i dare not” wait upon “i would” like the poor cat i’thi’ dagger?”