The bilateral system and UK aid

  1. When was the Paris Declaration?
    2005
  2. How many signatories of the Paris Declaration?
    More than 100 signatories
  3. How many partnership commitments aimed at improving the effectiveness of aid - Paris Declaration?
    56 partnership commitments aimed at improving the effectiveness of aid
  4. How many indicators does the Paris Declaration provide?
    Lays out 12 indicators to provide a measurable and evidence based way to track progress
  5. 5 things that the Paris Declaration provides its basis on?
    • Ownership
    • Alignment
    • Harmonisation
    • Results
    • Mutual
    • Accountability
  6. Why was it hard for developing countries to take the lead? Paris Declaration
    The aid process was still too strongly led by donor priorities and administered through donor channels, making it hard for developing countries to take the lead
  7. What have the reforms led to? -Paris Declaration
    Reforms have led to improved cooperation and more effective
  8. How many countries were in the country evaluation? Paris Declaration
    22 developing countries and 18 donor countries
  9. What was the belief that independent nations needed to develop? Paris Declaration
    • Independent nations just needed "a few years support"
    • Yet they had to build governments from scratch and had little local capacity
  10. What was the Pre-Paris situation like?
    • Donors used to give directly to the people and by-passed national systems
    • Programmes from the West assumed good results would follow if the money was given
  11. What was the post-Paris situation like?
    Harmonised approach and using systems for a long term, will be strengthened and achieve common goals - greater efficiency
  12. What did Post-Paris focus on?
    • Minimise the number of projects to gain effective use of money
    • Should focus at a country level - each country is diverse
    • Should bring on the emerging donors such as China
  13. What did Bernard Wood claim about the Paris Declaration?
    "The idea that you can avoid risk is an illusion"
  14. What % of donor countries had untied their aid after the Paris Declaration?
    Almost 90% of donor countries had untied their aid
  15. What % of developing countries surveyed had improved their systems for managing public funds after the Paris Declaration?
    More than 1/3 of developing countries surveyed had improved their systems for managing public funds
  16. What % of aid is disbursed on schedule?
    1/3 of aid is disbursed on schedule - making it hard to plan ahead
  17. Who organised the Paris Declaration?
    OECD
  18. Paris Declaration - 2005 - more info
    • More than 100 signatories - How can aid be made more effective? Contains 56 partnership commitments aimed at improving the effectiveness of aid. Lays out 12 indicators to provide a measurable and evidence based way to track progress
    • Ownership, alignment, harmonisation, results and mutual accountability
    • The aid process was still too strongly led by donor priorities and administered through donor channels, making it hard for developing countries to take the lead
    • Reforms have led to improved cooperation and more effective
    • Country evaluation - 22 developing countries and 18 donor countries
    • Independent nations just needed "a few years support" - had to build governments from scratch and little local capacity
    • Pre-Paris - donors used to give directly to the people and bypassed national systems
    • Programmes from the West - assumed good results would follow if the money was given
    • Post-Paris - harmonised approach and using systems for long term, strengthened and common goals - greater efficiency
    • Minimise the number of projects to gain effective use of money
    • Should focus at a country level - each country is diverse
    • Should bring on the emerging donors such as China
    • "The idea that you can avoid risk is an illusion" Bernard Wood
    • More than 1/3 of developing countries surveyed had improved their systems for managing public funds; almost 90% of donor countries had untied their aid
    • Progress was still too slow to reach the 2010 goals
    • The predictability of aid flows also remains low (1/3 of aid disbursed on schedule) making it hard to plan ahead
  19. What does DAC stand for?
    Development Assistance Committee
  20. DAC Donors - List
    • Australia
    • Austria
    • Belgium
    • Canada
    • Czech Republic
    • Denmark
    • EU
    • Finland
    • France
    • Germany
    • Greece
    • Iceland
    • Ireland
    • Italy
    • Japan
    • Korea
    • Luxembourg
    • Netherlands
    • New Zealand
    • Norway
    • Poland
    • Portugal
    • Slovak Republic
    • Slovenia
    • Spain
    • Sweden
    • Switzerland
    • UK
    • US
  21. What does ODA stand for?
    Official Development Assistance
  22. How much of ODAs aid is bilateral?
    70%
  23. How much is ODA by DAC donors in 2014?
    $135.2 billiom in 2014
  24. How much did aid from ODA by DAC donors increase since 2000?
    66% increase in real terms since 2000
  25. Difference between 2013 and 2014 in ODA aid from DAC donors?
    Same as 2013 in normal terms but a 0.5% reduction in real terms
  26. How many countries exceed the 0.7% UN target (as of 2014)
    5
  27. Which 5 countries exceed the UN target of 0.7%?
    • Denmark
    • Luxembourg
    • UK
    • Norway
    • Sweden
  28. How much does the US donate in aid (DAC - ODA)
    $32.7 billion
  29. What % of GNI does the US donate (ODA)
    0.19% (nowhere near the 0.7% target)
  30. How much did flows to the neediest country change by between 2013 and 2014?
    Flows to neediest countries fell by 8% from 2013 to 2014, but there have been pledges to increase this 2015 onwards
  31. What does the DAC do?
    Forum for selected OECD member states to discuss issues surrounding aid, development and poverty
  32. What is the DAC? More info
    • DAC - Development Assistance Committee
    • "Venue and voice" of the world's "major donor countries"
    • Forum for selected OECD member states to discuss issues surrounding aid, development and poverty
    • Official Development Aid - not voluntary
    • ODA bilateral - 70%
    • ODA by DAC members - $135.2 billion in 2014
    • 66% increase in real terms since 2000
    • Same as 2013 in normal terms but a 0.5% reduction in real terms
    • Flows to neediest countries fell by 8% from 2013 to 2014, but there have been pledges to increase this 2015 onwards
    • US is the largest donor of $32.7 billion - but the worst in terms of percentage of GNI at around 0.19%
    • Only 5 countries exceeded the UN target of 0.7% (2014) - Denmark, Luxembourg, UK, Norway and Sweden
  33. When were the colonial development and welfare acts?
    • 1929
    • 1940
    • 1945
  34. What did Thomas say in 1929?
    • "As far as our colonies are concerned, we are in the main trustees and a great moral obligation attaches to this country to do all that it can develop them" 
    • Thomas, 1929
  35. Who said "As far as our colonies are concerned, we are in the main trustees and a great moral obligation attaches to this country to do all that it can develop them"?
    Thomas, 1929
  36. Colonial governance - more info
    • Indirect rule and the "dual mandate"
    • Decolonisation and "partnership"
  37. Postcolonial British Development:
    • Development is seen as bigger under Labour
    • Department of Technical Cooperation (1961)
    • Overseas Development Ministry (64-70, 74-79)
    • Overseas Development Administration ODA (70-74, 79-97)
    • In 1997: ODA-DFID: political commitment
    • "One World Conservatism"
  38. How much was donated to the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami by the public in the UK?
    £392 million in public donations
  39. When did the UK chair the G8 meetings?
    2005 and again in 2013
  40. When was the Africa Commission Report?
    2005
  41. What was the Africa Commission Report 2005?
    Based on extensive research and consultation in Africa and elsewhere. Generation of new ideas for development and to deliver implementation of existing international commitments towards Africa. $36 billion of debt relief in 100% debt cancellation delivered for 19 countries, launch of the UN central Emergency Response Fund, remove school fees, training 20,000 more African peacekeepers
  42. When was Make Poverty History?
    2005
  43. What was Make Poverty History?
    2005 - Raise global awareness of global poverty - 13 countries
  44. How much was cancelled in debt due to the Africa Commission Report?
    2005 - $36 billion of debt relief in 100% debt cancellation
  45. How many countries were given debt relief as part of the Africa Commission Report 2005?
    19 countries
  46. Where is development seen as bigger under?
    Labour
  47. What was the Africa Commission Report also known as?
    Blair Commission for Africa
  48. What are the ideas between political parties in terms of development? UK Aid
    Cross party consensus and political commitment to 0.7%
  49. The evolution of British Aid - more info
    • Colonial development and welfare acts - 1929, 1940 and 1945
    • "As far as our colonies are concerned, we are in the main trustees and a great moral obligation attaches to this country to do all that it can develop them" (Thomas, 1929)
    • Colonial governance: Indirect rule and the "dual mandate"
    • Decolonisation and "partnership"
    • Post colonial British Development: 
    • Development is seen as bigger under Labour
    • Department of Technical Cooperation (1961)
    • Overseas Development Ministry (1964-1970, 1974-1979)
    • Overseas Development Administration ODA (1970-1974, 1979-1997)
    • In 1997: ODA-DFID: political commitment
    • "One World Conservatism"
    • Noughties: High profile of British Aid:
    • The 2004 Indian ocean tsunami - will of the public - £392 million in public donations
    • Chairing of the G8 2005 and again in 2013
    • Africa Commission Report (2005) (Blair Commission for Africa) - Based on extensive research and consultation in Africa and elsewhere. Generation of new ideas for development and to deliver implementation of existing international commitments towards Africa. $36 billion of debt relief in 100% debt cancellation delivered for 19 countries, launch of the UN Central Emergency Response Fund, remove school fees, training 20,000 more African peacekeepers
    • Make Poverty History 2005 - Raise global awareness of global poverty - 13 countries
    • Cross party consensus and political commitment to 0.7%
  50. When was the Department of Technical Cooperation created?
    1961
  51. When was the Overseas Development Ministry?
    1964-1970 and 1974-1979
  52. When was the Overseas Development Administration?
    (1970-1974 and 1979-1997)
  53. When were the MDGs?
    2000
  54. How many UN member states agreed to the MDGs?
    189 UN member states
  55. How many goals and targets for MDGs?
    8 goals, 21 targets
  56. What was the MDGs established after?
    Established after the Millennium Summit of the UN in 2000
  57. When were the SDGs?
    2015
  58. How many UN members states agreed to the SDGs?
    193 countries
  59. How many goals and targets for the SDGs?
    17 goals and 169 targets
  60. When was the Accra Agenda for Action?
    2008
  61. Where was the Accra Agenda for Action based?
    Accra in Ghana
  62. How many countries attended the Accra Agenda for Action?
    Attended by more than 100 countries
  63. What does the Accra Agenda for Action aim for?
    Aims to encourage the formation of broad aid partnerships, based on the principles of the Paris Declaration, that will encompass all players
  64. What is so key about the Accra Agenda for Action?
    Developing countries played a more active role
  65. How many developing countries participated in the OECDs 2008 survey of progress?
    54 developing countries
  66. Where did the Accra Agenda for Action identify progress was slow?
    • Country ownership
    • Building more effective and inclusive partnerships
    • Achieving development results
  67. When was the Busan Conference?
    2011
  68. Where was the Busan conference held?
    Busan, South Korea
  69. What did the Busan conference sought to assess?
    Sought to assess progress in improving the quality of aid against the agreed commitments and share global experiences in delivering the best results
  70. When was the Global partnership for Effective Development Cooperation?
    2013
  71. More information on the Global Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation?
    Ensuring that development cooperation is effective. Resulted as an agreement from Busan. Began in 2002. Knowledge exchange and regular monitoring of progress. Over 160 countries and 45 organisations. Holds meetings every 18-24 months
  72. How many countries and organisations are involved in the Global Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation?
    Over 160 countries and 45 organisations
  73. How often does the Global Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation hold meetings?
    Every 18-24 months
  74. Noughties Emphasis: Consensus: More info
    • MDGs (2000) - 189 UN member states - 8 goals, 21 targets, established after the Millennium Summit of the UN in 2000. In 2005, G8 agreed to fund the WB, the IMF and African Development Bank to cancel $40 to $55 billion in debt owned by poor countries
    • SDGs (2015) - 193 UN member states - 17 goals, 169 targets
    • Paris Declaration (2005)
    • Accra Agenda for Action (2008) - Accra, Ghana
    • Aim was to build on the work in Rome and Paris. Attended by more than 100 countries
    • Aims to encourage the formation of broad aid partnerships, based on the principles of the Paris Declaration, that will encompass all players
    • Developing countries played a more active role
    • 54 developing countries participated in the OECDs 2008 survey of progress
    • New global challenges such as rising food and fuel prices and climate change
    • Committing signatories to accelerate the pace of change
    • Identified progress was slow in: Country ownership; Building more effective and inclusive partnerships; Achieving development results
    • Busan (2011) - South Korea
    • Sought to assess progress in improving the quality of aid against the agreed commitments and share global experiences in delivering the best results
    • Global partnership for Effective Development Cooperation (2013) - ensuring that development cooperation is effective. Resulted in agreement from Busan. began in 2002. Knowledge exchange and regular monitoring of progress. Over 160 countries and 45 organisations. Holds meetings every 18-24 months
  75. 2015 UK Aid Strategy: What: More info
    • Strengthening global peace, security and governance for poverty reduction overseas and national security at home
    • Strengthening resilience and response to crises; global public health research, climate change adaptation and support for Syria, Middle East and North Africa 
    • Promoting global prosperity: economic development for the reduction of poverty and to strengthen UK trade and investment opportunities around the world
    • Tackling extreme poverty: the governments will strive to eliminate extreme poverty by 2030
  76. 2015 UK Aid Strategy: What: Brief
    • Strengthening global peace, security and governance
    • Strengthening resilience and response to crises
    • Promoting global prosperity 
    • Tackling extreme poverty
  77. What does the UK government strive to eliminate extreme poverty by?
    By 2030
  78. 2015 UK Aid Strategy: How: More info
    • 0.7% GNI protected
    • More to fragile states, Syria and Middle East and North Africa
    • More money being spent by other government departments e.g. Ministry of Defence
    • Less traditional budget support for recipient governments and payments by results
    • Little reference to partnerships with recipient governments or other donors
    • Reference to the need to redefine with ODA is e.g. as relates to spending here on refugees
    • Emphasis on transparency, accountability and value for money
  79. What is the UN GNI target?
    0.7%
  80. UK aid: Spent in different categories - breakdown
    • 35% in Education and health
    • 15% in Humanitarian Aid
    • 14.9% in other social infrastructure
    • 9.2% in economic infrastructure
  81. UK aid: Spent on Education and health - %
    35%
  82. UK aid: Spent on humanitarian aid: %
    15%
  83. UK aid: Spent on other social infrastructure - %
    14.9%
  84. UK aid: Spent on economic infrastructure
    9.2%
  85. UK aid: Spent on different places - breakdown
    • 35.3% in South of Sahara
    • 33.8% unspecified
    • 17.8% in South and Central Asia
    • 8.2% in Middle East and North Africa
    • 2.7% in Oceania
  86. UK aid: Spent in South of Sahara - %
    35.3%
  87. UK aid: Spent in unspecified - %
    33.8%
  88. UK aid: Spent in South and central Asia - %
    17.8%
  89. UK aid: Spent in Middle East and North Africa - %
    8.2%
  90. UK aid: Spent in Oceania - %
    2.7%
  91. Top 4 recipient countries for UK aid:
    • Ethiopia - $525m
    • Pakistan - $485m
    • India - $456m
    • Nigeria - $402m
  92. Top 4 recipient countries for UK aid: Ethiopia
    1. $525m
  93. Top 4 recipient countries for UK aid: Pakistan
    2. $485m
  94. Top 4 recipient countries for UK aid: India
    3. $456m
  95. Top 4 recipient countries for UK aid: Nigeria
    4. $402m
  96. UK aid achievements between 2010 and 2015: More info
    • Wealth creation - provided 68.9 million people, including 35.9 million women, with access to financial services work their way out of poverty
    • Poverty, vulnerability, nutrition and hunger - reached 28.5 million children under 5 and pregnant women through the governments nutrition relevant programmes
    • Education - supported 11 million children, of whom 5.3 million were girls, in primary and lower secondary education
    • Health - ensured that 5.1 million births took place safely with the help of nurses, midwives or doctors. The UK has funded the distribution of 47 million insecticide treated bed nets and is investing in vaccines and drugs, helping contribute to malaria deaths falling by 60% in the last 15 years
    • Water, sanitation and hygiene - supported 62.9 million people, of whom 22.2 million were women, to access clean water, better sanitation or improved hygiene conditions
    • Humanitarian assistance - reached over 13 million people with emergency food assistance, including 5.5 million women or girls
    • Governance and security - supported freer and fairer elections in 13 countries in which 162.1 million people voted
    • Climate change - supported 15 million people to cope with the effects of climate change
  97. How much wealth creation has the UK aid achieved between 2010 and 2015?
    68.9 million people, including 35.9 million women, with access to financial services work their way out of poverty
  98. How much has the UK aid achieved between 2010 and 2015 in terms of poverty, vulnerability, nutrition and hunger?
    Reached 28.5 million children under 5 and pregnant women through the governments nutrition relevant programmes
  99. How much has the UK aid achieved between 2010 and 2015 in terms of education?
    Supported 11 million children, of whom 5.3 million were girls, in primary and lower secondary education
  100. How much has the UK aid achieved between 2010 and 2015 in terms of health?
    Ensured that 5.1 million births took place safely with the help of nurses, midwives or doctors. The UK has funded the distribution of 47 million insecticide treated bed nets and is investing in vaccines and drugs, helping contribute to malaria deaths falling by 60% in the last 15 years
  101. How much has the malaria deaths fallen in the last 15 years?
    Fallen by 60%
  102. How many insecticide treated bed nets has the UK funded?
    47 million
  103. How much has the UK aid achieved between 2010 and 2015 in terms of water, sanitation and hygiene?
    Supported 62.9 million people, of whom 22.2 million were women, to access clean water, better sanitation or improved hygiene conditions
  104. How much has the UK aid achieved between 2010 and 2015 in terms of humanitarian assistance?
    Reached over 13 million people with emergency food assistance, including 5.5 million women or girls
  105. How much has the UK aid achieved between 2010 and 2015 in terms of governance and security?
    Supported freer and fairer elections in 13 countries in which 162.1 million people voted
  106. How much has the UK aid achieved between 2010 and 2015 in terms of climate change?
    Supported 15 million people to cope with the effects of climate change
  107. The coalition governments and 2010-2011 spending review: more info
    • "Our bargain with taxpayers is this; In return for contributing your money to help the world's poorest people, it is our duty to spend every penny of aid effectively. My top priority will be to secure maximum value for money in aid through greater transparency, rigorous independent evaluation and an unremitting focus on results"
    • International Development Secretary, Andrew Mitchell
  108. Who gave the coalition governments and 2010-2011 spending review quote?
    International Development Secretary, Andrew Mitchell
  109. The Future of UK aid - more info
    • "We will make UK aid work better by focusing on"
    • Meeting international commitments
    • Results and impact
    • Being transparent and accountable and value for money
    • Leading global action on girls and women
    • Boosting wealth creation
    • Strengthening governance in unstable and conflict affected countries
    • Climate change
    • Working with fewer international organisations: withdrawing from UNIDO; stopping voluntary funding for Habitat, International Labour Organisation etc
    • Fewer countries - from 43 to 27 - "losers" include Burundi and Niger. "Winners" include Yemen and Pakistan
  110. How has the UK changed the number of countries which receive their aid?
    From 43 to 27 countries
  111. "Winners" of UK Aid
    Yemen and Pakistan
  112. "Losers" of UK aid
    Burundi and Niger
Author
Marie_Andrews
ID
320443
Card Set
The bilateral system and UK aid
Description
hi
Updated