final vocab

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  1. Macroevolution
    creation/appearance  of new species over long period of time
  2. phyletic transformation
    conversion of a species into a new species Over long periods of time
  3. cladogenesis
    • “branching” evolution – splitting of a species
    • 2 Types of Cladogenesis:
    • 1) Allopatric speciation -  production of new species by branching of existing ones
    • 2) Parapatric Speciation -  in the context of overlapping ranges
  4. adaptive radiation
    • Adaptive radiation: expansion and diversification of life forms into new ecological niches.
    • ex: lemurs: Lemur separation/Madagascar/ only live in Madagascar/
    • Two factors: Species has to have adaptive potential; Some species are more adaptable than others  and they must have adaptable opportunities
  5. hominin
    group consisting of modern human beings and immediate ancestors (after split with chimps)
  6. hominins emerged and migrated out of where
    africa
  7. relative dating
    • soil strata reflect relative age
    • Youngest layer on top of oldest layer
    • Earthquakes can cause oldest layer to come up to the top
    • Law of superposition Principle that the bottom layer in stratified deposit is the oldest (normally)
    • Bottom layer (of earth) is the oldest
  8. absolute dating
    • gives calendar year
    • BP (before present/ before 1950) - Why before 1950 Atomic bomb helped us learn nature of isotopes  
    • MYA (million years ago)
    • BC/AD = BCE/CE (common era is what we use now )
    • BC/BC (before Christ)
    • AD/CE (anno domine common era)
  9. Potassium-Argon
    • Based on conversion of atoms in one form to the other
    • Based on decay of radioactive 40K (solid) into 40AR (non-radioactive gas)
    • Decays at steady rate
  10. Fission-track
    • Based on radioactive uranium
    • Molten rock has radioactive uranium in it
    • After hardens, uranium violently fissions: makes fission tracks in the stone
    • Then you Get sample: count number of tracks to get amount of time since rock has formed
    • dates when the rock was formed not the actual fossils itself
  11. cross-dating
    • Combines both relative and absolute dating
    • Association of remains with something of a known geological age
  12. isotope
    specific variant of an element
  13. half-life
    • K/Ar
    • potassium argon
  14. Paleoanthropology
    study of human emergence
  15. prognathism
    lower face and jaws project in front of upper face
  16. Australopithecine trends
    • 1: more efficient bipeds
    • 2: dentition changed - thicker enamel, bigger molar teeth, robust forms: “megadonts”
    • 3: limited brain development not much significant increase in brain size.
  17. Australopithecus afarensis
    • 8-3 mya
    • more apelike - long limbs 
    • from pelvis down, typical of modern humans 
    • prognathic 
    • thick enamels 
    • large canines
    • stronger than modern humans 
    • brain 420cc
  18. Lucy
    • A. Afarensis
    • 40% complete
    • discovered by D. Johanson
    • short femur angled inward
    • Short (3.3 ft. tall)
  19. Australopithecus garhi
    • 2.5-1 mya 
    • evidence o
  20. Paranthropus boisei
    • Found by Mary and Louis Leakey in Olduvai Gorge 3-1.2 mya
    • huge molars: thick enamel
    • Brain : 510cc
    • Dimorphic F: 75 lbs, 4 ft M: 108 lbs, 4.5 ft Sexual dimorphism index = 69
    • Prominent sagittal crest “nutcracker man”
    • robust forms: Ultimate grinders Lived in mixed grassland and woodland : vegetarians
    • Nuts, seeds, tough fibrous foods Huge teeth and jaw muscles for crushing, grinding and chewing
    • Extinct 1 mya
    • Became way too specialized
  21. Things associated with Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis
    • Oldowan tradition
    • Flintknapping
    • isotropic
    • reductive technology
  22. H. habilis
    • Larger brain ‘case’  & Brow ridges
    • 2.5 – 1.8 mya         
    • Compared to australopithecines:
    • Larger brain-to-body size ratio
    • flat face
    • Jaws and teeth are smaller
    • Brain size 650cc
    • Dimorphic
  23. H. rudolfensis
    • Brain 750cc
    • 5ft tall
    • dimorphic 
    • less prognathic 
    • broader face
  24. H. habilis/rudolfensis
    • 1st stone tool makers? Question of if they are the first tool makers
    • Biocultural evolution - Reduction in jaw size and teeth -> replacing biology with technology Expanding diet breadth with higher quality foods Ex: bone marrow – also has really high fat content Fueled brain expansion?
  25. Homo ergaster
    • discovered in africa 
    • 2 mya        
    • 5-6 ft         
    • Brain size  950
    • Long cranium (different from humans), not as much height ; elongated occipital bun
    • Large brow ridges
    • Forward projecting nose        
    • Intermediate between austra & humans           Adapted to softer food  
    • Controlled source of fire; cooked food; softer food; tooth reduction (example biocultural evolution)
    • Speedy
    • Slender
    • Ample surface area for sweating to keep body temp controlled
    • Good in the tropics
  26. Homo erectus
    found in eurasia
  27. Dmanisi, Georgia
  28. Java Man
    • discovered by Eugene Dubois 
    • early homo erectus find
  29. Zhoukoudian
    • dragon bone hill 
    • davidson black went to look for missing link 
    • Remains of 40 individiuals found
    • We don’t have them anymore because it was loaded on a submarine that was never seen again bc of the advent of WWII
    • Plaster casts of all the crania were made though
    • Brain size average: 1000 cc 900cc – 700,000 1000 – 200,000
    • Over time, marked increase in brain size
  30. Peking Man
  31. Oldowan
    • 2.5-1mya
    • 1st stone tool tradition
    • Named after Olduvai Gorge
    • Simple cobble chopping tools made out of stream cobbles
    • Make course cutting edge by removing a few flakes
    • Both tools and flakes are important
  32. Acheulean tradition
    • multipurpose tool 
    • handaxe - pear shaped
  33. Abbevillian handaxe
    • part of achulean technology 
    • discovered in france 
    • teardrop shaped
  34. Acheulean handaxe
    multipurpose tool
  35. Why could H. erectus migrate
    • Smarter (larger brains)
    • Better tools (Acheulean handaxes)
    • Evidence for Fire and Shelter
  36. thoracic vertebral foramen
    • nariokotome boys throacic foramen smaller than modern humans 
    • received less information or less responsive of the world around him 
    • homo erectus have smaller vertebral foramen becuase 
    • It was speculated that bipedalism was related to this, but there was already evidence for bipedalism for more thn 6mya 
    • so, he speculated it had something to do with speech
  37. Nariokotome Boy
    • 7 mya
    • homoerectus famous find 
    • Almost full skeleton
    • Discovered by Kamoya Kimeu in 1984
    • 8 year old boy
    • 5ft 3” tall
    • suggests that homo erectus had a growth spurt much more earlier
  38. Broca’s area
    • Broca’s area = speech center – has role in speech, but is not “The role”
    • Able to identify homo erectus brocas areas bc of the endocast made bc the brain Leaves imprint on skull
    • Erectus skulls have imprint  = Early assumption, erectus had speech
    • Speech originates in Wernicke’s area
    • Not going to find imprints of this because its in the inside of the brain
    • It sends messages to the Brocas area
    • Today we know the Broca’s ares is associated with more than speech “Important speech area” in brain NEXT to broca’s area
    • Erectus probably did not speak like us
    • Speech did not develop with homo erectus
  39. associatied with archaic H. sapiens
    • Mousterian tradition
    • Levallois technique
    • H. sapiens neandertalensis
    • Shanidar
  40. Mousterian tradition
    • more complex form of toll compared to achuelean
    • reductive technology 
    • includes the levellois technque
  41. Levallois technique
    • out of mousterian tradition 
    • Turtle back core
    • Carefully shaped chunked with removed blanks Stone tools have life cycles and often reused 
    • can make projectile points 
    • good for cutting, slicing, butchering
    • more specialized for different jobs compared to achulean multipurpose tool
    • more cutting edge per raw material compared to achulean
  42. H. sapiens neandertalensis
    • dates to 125,000-40,000BP
    • Middle Pleistocene hominin
    • 1st discovered in 1856 Neander valley
    • Remains found in Europe and middle east 

    • Low skull, lack of chin, brow ridges
    • short, stocky
    • 140-180 lbs
    • large brain 
    • worn down incisors probably used as tool
    • adaptive to cold climate : big nasal cavity, barrel chested, large brain attributed to adaptation to cold climate 
    • popular conception is that they were brutish and stupid
  43. Shanidar
    • site of deliberate burial 
    • Earliest example of Ritual burial
    • Left side of head bashed hard
    • Right side of body slammed in traumatic event
    • soil samples underneath skeleton showed pollen samples indicating body layed on bed of pine bows bouquets of flowers
  44. Anatomically Modern Homo sapiens (AMHS)
  45. Mitochondrial DNA
    • replacement model 
    • AMHS populations have most genetic diversity; should be the oldest most ancient ones.
    • mDNA diversity is a result of mutations; oldest population should have most mutations otherwise it would not be diverse and has been evolving longer.
  46. Christopher Stringer
    • idea that we came out of Africa and replaced everyone else and that no interbreeding took place
    • idea that Homo erectus populations in Africa gave rise to AMHS in AfricaThen, AMHS migrated to Europe and Asia, replacing h. erectus and Neandertals populations in Europe and Asia
    • Humancentric model because it places us by ourselves and that we outcompete these other homininsfossil evidence:  Oldest AMHS fossils in Africa. It fits because its Consistent with African Genesis.
    • mDNA: AMHS populations have most genetic diversity; should be the oldest most ancient ones. mDNA diversity is a result of mutations; oldest population should have most mutations otherwise it would not be diverse and has been evolving longer
  47. Milford Wolpoff
    • regional continuity model 
    • AMHS evolved at the same time in major regions of the old world (Africa, Europe, and Asia)
    • Some gene flow between populations would be neededMix with AMHS (coming out of Africa), and AMHS derived from European Neandertals and asian h. erectus populations
    • Problem if this model were true: is that not a lot of gene flow back to Africa
    • No evidence there was migration back to Africa because you cant get populations remixing in Africa without gene flow
  48. middle ground view
    • Partial replacement or “assimilation model” of archaic groups
    • neanderthals interbreed, but swamped out genetically
    • Most DNA from AMHS migrating out of Africa
  49. Upper Paleolithic
    • 40,000 - 10,000 BP
    • shift to AMHS
    • climate change becuase of ice age 
    • population increase was extremly rapid due to more sites
    • humans widely dispersed
    • subsistence base broadens because huge animals started to die so they needed to diversify their food 
    • artistic explosion 
    • production of blades to make different specialized tools
  50. Bering strait
    • 50,000 year general accepted date becuase its the first time there was an ice free corridor 
    • it didn't take long for people to get to the tip of south america
  51. 4 tenets of stone tool
    • stone topography - 
    • platform preparation - get ride of sharp edges because of risk of damaging 
    • angle of force - important becuase possibility of cutting biface in half
    • amount of force - important for taking off pressure flakes - hammerstone determines type of flake and pressure needed
  52. blade technology tradition
    • associated with late upper paleolithic period 
    • Specialized for local resources for Hunting marine and land animals
    • more efficiency and multiple traditions
  53. What kind of qualities of each tradition makes each previous more efficient than the other?
    • tools were specialized for local resources
    • its more than just imitation, its teaching
    • ability to communicate better 
    • more efficient technology
    • techniques associated with these traditions were more effecient than previous one
  54. Venus figurines
    • portable artwork 
    • heavy set female bodies with exaggerated body parts 
    • possibly symbolic of being well fed and having good fertility
  55. Dolni Vestonice, Czech Republic
    • Mammoth bone huts
    • Ovens for food and figurines
    • Shelter made of mammoth bones
    • No trees to use because lack of forest areas to make shelter out of wood
    • Use all the parts of the animal
    • Type of Cultural innovation
  56. Lascaux cave
    stags, horses, and ibex found in peripheral galleries
  57. sympathetic Magic
    • Mostly big game animals with Darts/points in or near them
    • we dont really know what it means, but probaly had to do with hunting and that the paintings were only done by men
    • ex. hand prints could show sexual dimorphism
  58. Race
    • traditionally, there were only a few races that were bounded geographically
    • problem with this is that genetic traits dont bundle - natural selection requires variation in gene pool, arbitrary which traits are valid, and theres more variation within groups than between groups 
    • we acknowlede outward phenotypic differences, but there is no good patterning in skin color because of colonialism and movement of people everywhere
  59. cline (clinal)
    • gradual shift in genetic traits over space
    • example Skin color: poles to equator, gets darker
    • Blood: type B increases from west to east Europe
    • These are a result of gene flow and natural selection
  60. polytypic/polymorphic
    • humans have different types and forms
    • lots of diversity and variation within regional populations and local populations due to adaptation of their different environments
    • no difference in terms of genetics despite phenotypic difference
  61. Monogenism
    theory that human origins all share the same pair bond/common descent for all human races
  62. Polygenism
    • human “races” from different pairs
    • different physical, mental, and moral attributes
    • ex. Linnaeus was a polygenist Blacks were limited Whites were superior
    • Associated with biological determinism
    • Polygenic people said : phenotypic varaiation associated with intelligence, morals, etc.
    • Result of eugenics
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final vocab
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