PSYC 280

  1. Naturalists
    Students of the forms and classification of organisms
  2. Evolution by natural selection - 4 main observations
    • 1. Reproduction will increase a population rapidly unless factors limit it
    • 2. Individuals of a species are not identical 
    • 3. Some variation among individuals is inherited 
    • 4. Not all offspring will survive to reproduce
  3. adaptation
    A trait that increases the probability that an individual will leave offspring in subsequent generations.
  4. sexual selection
    Darwin’s theoretical mechanism for the evolution of anatomical and behavioral differences between males and females.
  5. convergent evolution
    The evolution- ary process by which responses to similar ecological features bring about similarities in behavior or structure among animals that are only distantly related (i.e., that differ in genetic heritage).
  6. homoplasy
    A physical resemblance be- tween physical or behavioral characteristics due to convergent evolution, such as the similar body form of tuna and dolphins.
  7. homology
    A physical resemblance that is based on common ancestry, such as the similarity in forelimb structures of different mammals.
  8. analogy
    Similarity of function, although the structures of interest may look different. The human hand and an elephant’s trunk are analogous features.
  9. mutation
    A change in the nucleotide sequence of a gene as a result of unfaithful replication.
  10. genetics
    The study of inheritance, including the genes encoded in DNA.
  11. chromosome
    A complex of condensed strands of DNA and associated protein mol- ecules; found in the nucleus of cells.
  12. gene
    A length of DNA that encodes the in- formation for constructing a particular protein.
  13. genus
    A group of species that resemble each other because of shared inheritance.
    The order of categories, from most broad to most narrow, is this: kingdom, phylum, class, or- der, family, genus, species. (Here’s a handy mnemonic to help you remember them: kindly put clothes on, for goodness’ sake.)
  15. cortex
    The outer covering of the cerebral hemispheres that consists largely of nerve cell bodies and their branches.
  16. neocortex
    Cerebral cortex that is made up of six distinct layers.
Card Set
PSYC 280
Chapter 6