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A type of associative learning. An unconditioned stimulus that produces an instinctive, unconditioned response is paired with a neutral stimulus. With repetition, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that produces a conditioned response.
The process of changing someone's behavior through the use of consequences. (Reinforcement, Punishment)
Habituation and Dishabituation
- Habituation: process of becoming used to a stimulus.
- Dishabituation: when a second stimulus is presented causing a resensitization to the original stimulus by increasing the response to the original stimulus.
Two types of learning
- Associative Learning: creation or pairing or association, either between two stimuli or between a behavior and response
- Observational Learning: links voluntary behaviors with consequences in an effort to alter frequency of behavior
What are four outcomes to classical conditioning?
- Generalization:stimulus is broadenes to something of similiar caliber (white rat, white bunny, fluffy rug)
- Discrimination: organism learns to disinguish between two similiar stimuli
- Extinction: organism becomes habituatied to the conditioned stimulus such that the conditioned response stops occurring especially if not paired with a treat, or loud sound
- Spontaneous Recovery: a weak conditioned response that can be exhibited after extinction
Four types of operant conditioning
- Positive Reinforcement: increasing likelihood of something by adding a positive consequence
- Negative Reinforcement: increase of frequency of behavior by removing something unpleasant (escape learning, avoidance learning)
- Positive Punishment: adds unpleasant consequence in response to a behavior to reduce that behavior
- Negative Punishment: to reduce a behavior by reducing a stimulus
Four different reinforcement schedules
- Variable Ratio: reinforce a behavior after varying number of performances of a behavior, but the average number to recieve reward is constant. Reward after 5 button presses, 6 button presses, 3 button presses, but after 3 times of repeating this, the number changes
- Fixed Ratio: reinforces behavior after a specific number of performances. It is continuous.
- Variable Interval: Reinforce behavior first time after a varying time interval. So after 30 sec, then 90 sec.
- Fixed Interval: Reinforce a behavior after specific amount of time.
Process of rewarding increasingly specific behaviors.
Learning that occurs without a reward but spontaneously occurs.
Ex: Like driving with a friend home and learning the way home from it.
Preparedness and Instinctive Drift
- Preparedness: Learning behavior that coincides with instinct and natural ability.
- Instinctive Drift: difficulty in overcoming instinctual behaviors
Linked to observational learning located in the frontal and parietal lobe of the cerebral cortex. They are linked motor process of observing their own and other people actions. Also linked with emotion of self and other too.
Two ways of processing information
- Automatic Processing: information gained without effort (like driving to a place and memorizing the route)
- Controlled (Effortful) Processing: active memorization. It can be turned to automatic like when learning a language long enough.
Encoding (different types of encoding x3)
the process of putting new information into memory
- Semantic Encoding: putting information into a meaningful context
- Acoustic Encoding: storing sounds
- Visual Encoding: storing visuals
2 types of rehearsals
- Maintenance Rehearsal: repetition of information to keep it in your working memory
- Elaborative Rehearsal: association of information to information already stored in your long term memory
4 ways of memorizing
- Peg-Word (associating numbers with words)
- Method of Loci
2 types of sensory memory storage
- Most fleeting kind of memory storage
- Iconic: Visual
- Echoic: Auditory
Short Term Memory Capacity
7+2 with an increase via chunking
2 Types of Long Term Memory
- Implicit (Nondeclarative, Procedural) Memory: skills and conditioned responses
- Explicit (Declaritive) Memory: requires conscious recall (semnatic - facts, episodic - events)
Longer the amount of time between sessions of relearning, the greater the retention of the information later on.
A network of interconnected ideas (like links on a wiki page)
Also known a priming. Recall is aided by first presented with a word or phrase closely related to desired semantic network.
3 ways people remember better based on their situation
- Context Effects: memory is aided by being in the physical location where encoding took place
- State-Dependent Memory: a person recalls better if they are in the same mode
- Serial Position Effect: people memorize the first and last thing best (also known as primacy and recency effect with stronger recall for primacy)
Proceeds in a retrograde fashion, with loss of recent memories going to distant ones. Sundowning is also frequent where dysfunction is increased late afternoon and evening.
- They include:
- Neurofibrillary Tangles
- β-amyloid Plaques (incorrect folding of amyloid precursor protein causing insoluble β-pleated sheets to deposit in the brain)
Memory loss caused by thiamine deficiency.
loss of previously formed memories
- Anterograde Amnesia: inability to form new memories
- Confabulation: process of creating vivid but fabricated memories
Inability to recognize people and objects.
2 types of learning interferences
- Proactive: old information is interfering with new information
- Retroactive: new information causes you to forget old information
Even though older people are thought to have a worse memory, that is incorrect. They have a greater semantic network allowing them to recall things easier.
Ability to recall some point in the future. It is easier to remember something event-based like getting milk than something time based like taking medication at a certain time.
Memory construction error involving confusion between semantic and episodic memory.
A phenomena that allows formation of neural connections due to a response. Babies are best at this.
Synaptic Pruning vs Long Term Potentiation
- Synaptic Pruning: removing weak neural connections
- Long Term Potentiation: strengthening memory connections through increased neurotransmitter release and receptor density
Cognition vs Cognitive Development
Cognition: acquiring knowledge and understanding it through knowledge of thought, understanding, and senses
Cognitive Development: development of ones ability of one to think and solve problems across their lifespan.
Jean Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development
- Sensorimotor (birth-2)
- Preoperational (2-7)
- Concrete Operational (7-11)
- Formal Operational (11+)
How is new information processed and what are the two complementary processes to it?
New information processed via Adaptation
process of classifying new information into existing schemata
- Accomidation: process by which existing schemata are modified to encompass new information
Jean Piaget's 1st Stage of Cognitive Development
- (Birth-2) The child learns how to manipulate their environment in order to meet physical needs. This is the beginning of two circular reactions:
- Circular Reactions: repetitive nature
- Primary Circular Reactions: repetition of body movement that originally occurred by chance and is soothing
- Secondary Circular Reactions: manipulation is outside the body (like throwing things)
- Milestone => Object Permanence:
- the ability for the child to know something exists even out of view (start of representational thought where a child can make mental representations of things)
Jean Piaget's 2nd Stage of Cognitive Development
- (2-7) characterized by:
- Symbolic thought: ability to pretend, have imagination
- Egocentrism: inability to imagine what another person is thinking or feeling
- Centration: tendency to focus on one aspect of an object (inability to see value of money so quantity over quality)
Concrete Operational Stage
Jean Piaget's 3rd Stage of Cognitive Development
(7-11) Children can understand the value of things like money, and consider perspectives of others. Can think logically but only with concrete objects.
Formal Operational Stage
Jean Piaget's 4th Stage of Cognitive Development
(11+) Children have the ability to think logically about abstract thoughts. They can reason and problem solve.
2 types of intelligence
- Fluid Intelligence: problem solving skills
- Crystallized Intelligence: learning a new skill and new knowledge
Begins with impaired memory, but later turns into impaired judgement and confusion.
Rapid fluctuation of cognitive function that is reversible and caused by medical (nonphysical) causes such high blood sugar.
Three steps in the information processing model
Inability to consider how to use an object in a nontraditional manner.
Inductive vs Deductive Reasoning
- Inductive: seeks to a theory based on generalizations (starts with instances and draws a conclusion from them)
- Deductive: draws from conclusions based on a general set of rules
Heuristics (two types)
simplified principles used to make decisions (rule of thumb)
- Availability Heuristics: when we try to decide how likely something is based on ability to imagine
- Representativeness Heuristics: categorizing items based on prototypical, sterotypical, or representative image (like guessing heads or tails after flipping coin ten times when rate is always 50/50)
Evidence obtained from testing demonstrates a solution does not work. Confirmation bias can prevent someone from eliminating a choice.
Ability to act on perceptions that may not be supported by evidence.
- Doctor's use...
- Recognition-Primed Decision Model: the doctor's brain sorts a wide variety of information to match a pattern.
Gardener's Multiple Inteligences
States of Consciousness
- Consciousness: one's level of awareness
- -altered state of consciousness
Alertness and the cortex associated with it
Alertness: state of consciousness in which we are able to think and are awake. It is maintained by the prefrontal cortex at the front of the brain.
Fibers from the prefrontal cortex communicate with reticular formation (a neural structure at the front of the brain) to keep cortex awake.
Different Electroencephalography (EEG) Waves observed all the way up to final stage before REM sleep
- NREM (non rapid eye movement)
- Beta Waves: (alert and awake) high frequencies, neurons randomly firing
- Alpha Waves: (eyes closed and relaxing) slower waves than beta waves, and more synchronized
- Theta Waves: (stages 1 and 2) slower frequencies, higher voltage, irregular waves, sleep spindles and k cmplexes
- Delta Waves: (stage 3 and 4; Slow wave Sleep) very deep sleep, very low frequencies, high voltage, cognitive recovery and declerative memory consolidation
REM Sleep Characterisitics
- Rapid Eye Movement (paradoxical sleep):
- -heart and breathing patterns that of wakefulness
- -muscles paralyzed
- -beta waves firing
Relating memory with REM and SWS
- REM - procedural memory consolidation
- SWS (slow-wave sleep) - declarative memory consolidation
What hormone is linked with sleepiness?
Melatonin: a seratonin derived hormone from the pineal gland.
The pineal gland is directly linked to the hypothalmus which has a direct link to the retina. When the eye notices that there is little light, it causes the body to release melatonin.
What hormone is associated with wakefulness?
Cortisol: a steriod hormone produces in adrenal cortex
Light => Retina => hypothalmus => sends out coticotropin releasing factor (CRF) => anterior pituitary gland => sends out adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) => adrenal cortex in kidney => sends out cortisol
What percent of dreams occur during REM sleep?
3 top theories of dreams
- Activation Synthesis Theory: dreams mimic incoming sensory information and the cortex tries to piece the information together
- Problem Solving Dream: dreams are a way to solve problems
- Cognitive Process: sleeping counterpart to the stream of consciousness
Neurocognitive Models of Dreaming
A way to unify biological and physical perspectives on dreaming by correlating subject, cognitive experience of dreaming with physiological changes.
Two Types of Sleep Disorders
- Dyssomnias: disorders that make it difficult to sleep
- Parasomnias: abnormal movements during sleep
disorders that make it difficult to sleep
difficulty to sleep
lack of voluntary control over the onset of sleep
- Sleep Apnea:
inability to breathe during sleep
loss of muscle control and sudden intrusion of REM sleep during waking hours
- -sleep paralysis:
sensation of being unable to move even when awake
hallucinations before you go to sleep (go to bed)
hallucinations when you pop out of bed (hop out of bed)
abnormal movements during sleep
- Night Terrors:periods of intense anxiety during slow-wave sleep. It is a sympathetic overdrive usually occurring during SWS.
- Sleep Walking (somnambulism)
Aftermath for Sleep Deprivation
- -mood disorders
- -decreased performance
- -slowed reaction time
earlier onset and greater duration of REM sleep
Hypnosis (plus people most susceptible to hypnosis)
Hypnosis: when a person is in a highly suggestible state. Starts with hypnotic induction (hypnotist attempts to relax subject to increase concentration)
This is for people willing to be hypnotized. Not the skeptics.
Four Types of Consciousness Altering Drugs
- Reduce nervous system activity resulting in:
- -reduced anxiety
Effects of Alcohol (depressant)
- -increased GABA (primary inhibitory neurotransmittor in the brain; chloride channel that causes hyperpolarization of membrane) causing brain inhibition of things like those that prevent inappropriate behavior
- -diminished arousal
- -increased dopamine levels
- -alcohol myopia: inability to recognize consequences of actions
Inability to recognize consequences of actions
Long Term Effects of Alcohol
- -liver failure
- -pancreatic damage
- -gastric and duodenal ulcers
- -gastrointestinal cancer
- -brain disorders (Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome: deficiency in thiamine causing memory impairment and change in mental status and loss of motor skills)
Barbiturates and Benzodiazepins (Depressant)
Barbiturates historically used for anxiety reduction but deemed highly adictive so they were replaced with benzodiazepins.
They increase GABA activity causing a sense of relaxation.
- Common Barbiturates:Amobarbital
- Common Benzodiazepins:Clonazepam
Increase in arousal of nervous system and increase in frequency of action potentials.
Instant Causes from Amphetamines (stimulant)
- -increased arousal by increasin dopamine, seratonin, norepinephrine levels at synapse
- -reduced appetite
- -reduced need for sleep
- -delusions of grandeur
- -brain damage
- -brain stroke
Withdrawel Effects of Amphetamines (stimulant)
Withdrawal after discontinuation causes depression, fatigue, irratibility
Instant Causes from Cocaine (stimulant)
Has anesthetic properties and vasoconstrictive properties and is sometimes used in surgeries in highly vascularized areas such as throat and nose.
- Those the same as amphetamines
- -increased arousal by increasin dopamine, seratonin, norepinephrine levels at synapse
- -reduced appetite
- -reduced need for sleep
- -delusions of grandeur
- -brain damage
- -brain stroke
Instant Causes from Ecstasy (stimulant)
- A hallucinogen combined with an amphetamine.
- -increased heart rate
- -increased blood pressure
- -blurry vision
- -overwhelming sense of connectedness
-2 common forms
-what it does
- Opiates: naturally occurring form (morphine; codeine)
- Opioids: semisynthetic derivatives (oxycodone; hydrocodone; heroine)
These compounds bind to opiod receptors in peripheral nervous system, causing a decrease in pain.
respiratory suppression because brain stops sending signal to breathe
Heroin and possible treatment
(diacetylmorphine) It was originally a substitute for morphine, but once it is injected, the body metabolizes it and turns it into morphine.
Possible treatment includes use of methadone (long acting opioid with lower risk of overdose)
Hallucinogens (common forms and effects)
- Common FormsLSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
- Mushrooms (with peyote, ketamin, mescaline, and psilocybin)
- -distortion of reality
- -enhanced sensory experience
- -introspection (examination of one's mental and emotional progression)
- -increased heart rate
- -increased blood pressure
- -pupil dilation
- -increased temperature
Two common forms of marijuana and the active chemical ingredient
cannabis sativa and cannabis indica
The active chemical ingredient is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a hallucinogen, depressant, and stimulant.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) effects
- THC effect cannabinoid receptors, glycine receptors, opiod receptors (how the receptors create a high is unknown)
- -increases GABA
- -increase dopamine
- -red eyes
- -dry mouth
- -short term memory impairment
- -increased heart rate
- -increased appetite
- -lower blood pressure
What are the four dopaminergic pathways of the brain?
- These are the reward pathways.
- -Mesolimbic Reward Pathway (activation accounts for positive reinforcement in substance abuse)
- -Nucleus Accumbens (NAc)
- -Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA)
- -Medial Forebrain Bundle (MFB)
Attention and two categories of it
focusing on one aspect of the sensory environment (sensorium;
- Selective Attention: being able to focus on one thing and filter out everything else (cocktail party phenomenon of hearing your name and perking in)
- Divided Attention: being able to do multiple tasks at once (automatic processing; controlled (effortful) processing)
5 Components of Language
- Phonology: refers to the actual sound of the word
- Morphology: refers to the way the word is composed using morphemes
- Semnatics: refers to associating a meaning to the word
- Syntax: refers to the importance of us putting words together
- Pragmatics: refers to the importance of the context for the language used
Timeline of language acquisition
- 9-12 months: babbling (even in deaf children); stops around 9-12 months
- 12-18 months: ceasing of babbling and child learns around 1 word per month
- 18-20 months: "explosion of language" and combining words
- 2-3 years: longer sentences (more likely to have a growth error that results in incorrectly applying a grammar rule)
- 5 years: language rules are ultimately astered
Nativist Theory (language)
Nativist (biological) Theory: refers to the idea that children are born with an innate capacity for language (language acquisition device (LAD): refers to effortlessly learning language)
Sensitive Period: when the environment has the maximum effect on development of a child; before puberty
Learning Theory (language)
Learning (behaviorist) Theory: learning a language is linked to parent conditioning such that some sounds are reinforced. The lack of reinforcement for sounds that are not used causes the child to lose interest in learning those sounds.
(theory CANNOT explain for language boom)
Social Interactionist Theory
Language development is a mixture of biological and social processes. Language is driven by child's desire to to communicate.
- Brain Development
- Certain brain circuits get reinforced while de-emphasized brain circuits lead to atrophy.
Whorfian Hypothesis (Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis)
Suggests that our perception of reality is influenced by language. So language affects the way we think.
A more expansive vocabulary allows for more sophisticated processing of information, and enhanced communication.
Two locations in the brain responsible for speech (what connects them)
- Broca's Area: located in the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe. It controls motor function of speech via connection with motor cortex.
- Wernicke's Area: located in superior temporal gyrus of temporal lobe. It is responsible for language comprehension.
Broca's are and Wernicke's are connected by arcuate fasciculus
(axon's associated with language comprehension)
Aphasia (3 types too)
a deficit of language production and comprehension
- Broca's (expressive) Area: language production affected but speech comprehension intact. The person will have reduced ability to produce language, or think up words to use.
- Wernicke's (receptive) Area: speech comprehension affected but not not motor production and fluency. As a result, the person speaks nonsensical words even if the person knows what he is saying.
- Conduction Aphasia: when arcuate fasciculas affected. Since only the connecting neuron's are affected, the person can comprehend speech, and produce speech. The person just can't repeat words said back to them due to the destruction of that link.
- -REM most frequent in the morning, and longer
Four primary forms of motivation
Extrinsic vs Intrinsic Motivation
- Extrinsic: motivation that comes outside of the body (for example the want to become a doctor)
- Intrinsic Motivation: motivation that is internal (for example, the want to be a master doctor)
The theory that humans are naturally motivated to do things they a preprogramed to do; activated after a stimuli
Arousal Theory (Yerkes-Dodson Theory)
People are motivated to maintain high levels of arousal (being awake & reactive to a stimuli) but decrease it if it is above optimal levels.
Yerkes-Dodson Law: people work the hardest when arousal is at an intermediate level and worst if it is too high or too low
Drive Reduction Theory (Primary and Secondary)
Human are motivated to remove themselves from things they find uncomfortable.
- Primary Drives: biological needs
- Secondary Drives: emotional needs
A way to maintain homeostasis, increasing or decreasing stimuli to achieve it.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (5)
(needs => a primary motivator)
- Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: based on different levels of priority, placing the top one as the primary motivator for actions:
- 1) Self Actualization
- 2) Esteem
- 3) Love / Belonging
- 4) Safety
- 5) Physiology
Self Determination Theory (3)
(needs => a primary motivator)
- Emphasizes 3 universal needs, needed to be fulfilled in order.
- 1) Autonomy (being in control of yourself)
- 2) Competence (ability to accomplish hard tasks)
- 3) Relatedness (wanting to be accepted by others)
Incentive Theory (motivation)
Behavior is motivated by rewards and avoidance of punishment.
Expectancy-Value Theory (motivation)
Motivation comes from an individuals expectations of success and how much they value the end point of that sort of success.
Opponent Process Theory
- Explains motivation for drug use
- As the drug use increases, the body aims to counteract the effects, leading to tolerance and uncomfortable withdrawal.
What is the primary motivation for sexual desire?
- Cultural influences
- Learned behavior
- Conditioned influence
Three Elements of Emotion
- Physiological Response: change in heart rate, blood pressure, skin temperature
- Behavioral Response: facial expressions and body language
- Cognitive Response: subjective response to emotion based on past experiences
7 Universal Emotion
James Lange Theory of Emotion
- 1) Nervous system arousal perceived
- 2) Conscious emotion based on it
- 1) Nervous system and emotion occur at the same time
- 2) Action based on it
Emotion is based on the person's perception of the environment. After examining it, they realize their emotion.
Plays a large role on emotion and motivation.
- Septel Nuclei
- Part of Cerebral Cortex
It signals the cortex about stimuli related to attention and emotions.
It processes the environment, detects external cues, and learns from the surrounding to produce emotion. (produces emotion from external cues)
Sensory processing station that takes in everything and routes the information to different parts of the brain.
Synthesizes and release neurotransmitters. It largely dictates emotional states. It monitors hunger and thirst.
Responsible for long term memory creation.
Relating explicit and implicit memory to emotion and parts of the brain.
- Explicit: memory of experiencing actual emotion, guided by the hippocampus
- Implicit: also refereed to as emotional memory, which is the storage of the actual feeling of emotion associated to the event, guided by the amygdala
Which lobe is responsible for distinguishing facial feature (which hemisphere for discerning emotions)?
Temporal lobe (sometimes occipital)
-Left Prefrontal Cortex
-Right Prefrontal Cortex
-Dorsal Prefrontal Cortex
-Ventral Prefrontal Cortex
For planning and executive functions, expressing personality, and emotion.
- Left Prefrontal Cortex: positive emotion
- Right Prefrontal Cortex: negative emotion
- Dorsal Prefrontal Cortex: attention and cognition
- Ventral Prefrontal Cortex: connects with parts of the brain responsible for experiencing emotions
- Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex: decision making and controlling emotional response to amygdala
Role of autonomic Nervous System and emotion
It is responsible for physiological reactions to emotions, like increased blood pressure.
Cogitive Appraisal of Stress
subjective evaluation of a situation that induces stress
- Primary Appraisal: initial evaluation of the environment and associated threat
- Secondary Appraisal: evaluating whether organism can cope with stress
Stressor (2 classifications of stress)
A biological element, external condition, or event that leads to stress.
- Classifications of Stress
- Distress: stress from a negative environment
- Eustress: stress from a positive environment (stress is caused by anything life changing)
When encountered with stress, how does the body initially respond?
via sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight)
General Adaptation Syndrome of Stress (3 levels)
- Sequence of physiological responses:
- 1) Alarm Stage: hypothalamus sends out CRF to anterior pituitary gland that releases ACTH to andrenal gland that sends out corisol to combat stress
- 2) Resistance: the body does everything it can to fight stress; cortisol allows body to stay engaged
- 3) Exhaustion: the body can no longer fight stress; burn out; high blood pressure; ulcers
Two strategies far coping with stress
- Problem Focused Strategy (involved in overcoming stressor by fixing problem)
- Emotionally Focused Strategy (involved in fixing your feeling towards stressor)
Our thoughts of "Who am I" and fall under a self-schema (a self-given label that carries a set of qualities).
It is the words we think when answering that question about ourselves.
Individual components of our self-concept related to the groups which we belong to.
Gender Identity (two extremes)
A person's appraisal of him or himself on scales of masculinity and femininity, regardless of biological or sexual orientation.
- Androdgeny: high on masculinity and femininity scale
- Undifferentiated: low on masculinity and femininity scale
Ethnic Identity (Nationality)
One's ethnic group which member typically share common ancestry, cultural heritage, and language.
Nationality: based on political borders
Hierarchy of Salience
We let the situation dictate who we identify most as. It is based on time and effort associated with a certain identity.
Studies have found that females and males identify their gender as smaller aspect of their identity if they are in a same sex group, and more if they are in a mixed-sex group.
The higher the following are to each other, the higher self-esteem
(self worth) we have.
- Actual Self: who we actually are
- Ought Self: who society thinks we are
- Ideal Self: who we want to be
Our beliefs in our ability to succeed.
A decrease in our self efficacy (Our beliefs in our ability to succeed) due to a constant hopeless scenario.
Locus of control (external vs internal)
Locus of control:
a way we characterize influence in our lives.
- External: outside influences are in control of our lives
- Internal: we are in charge of our own lives
Human sex drive.
Freud belived that we are born with a libido and that libidinal energy and drive to reduce libidinal tension is the dynamic force accounting for human psychological processes.
When a child overindulged or overly frustrated during a stage of development.
Neurosis: a child forming a personality pattern based on that stage.
Oral Stage (Freud)
Orally Fixated Adult:
- 1st Stage in Freud's Psychosexual Development
- (0-1 years) Gratification from putting things in mouth. Libidinal energy centered around mouth.
Anal Stage (Freud)
Anal Fixated Adult:
- 2nd Stage in Freud's Psychosexual Development
- (1-3 years) Libido centered around anus and gratification gained around eliminating waste.
excessive orderliness or sloppiness
Phallic or Oedipal Stage (Freud)
- 3rd Stage in Freud's Psychosexual Development
- (3-5 years) People begin to experience an Oedipal Conflict or Electra Conflict Libidinal energy sublimates or de-eroticizes.
Latency Stage (Freud)
- 4th Stage in Freud's Psychosexual Development
- Libido sublimates until puberty.
Genital Stage (Freud)
- 5th Stage in Freud's Psychosexual Development
- (puberty to adulthood) If all the stages were normal, he child enters into a normal, heterosexual relationship.
5 Stages in Freud's Psychosexual Development
- Phallic (Oedipal)
Erikson's Psychosocial Development
- 1) Trust vs. Mistrust(0-1) Can I trust the world?
- 2) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt(1-3) Is it okay to be me?
- 3) Initiative vs. Guilt
- (3-6) Is it okay for me to do, move, and act?
- 4) Industry vs. Inferiority
- (6-12) Can I make it in the world of people and things?
- 5) Identity vs. Role Confusion(12-20) Who am I? What can I be?
- 6) Intimacy vs. Isolation
- (20-40) Can I love?
- 7) Generativity vs. Stagnation
- (40-65) Can I make my life count?
- 8) Integrity vs. Despair(65+) Is it okay to have been me?
3 phases of Kholberg's Moral Reasoning and 2 substages in each
- Preconventional Morality (in adolescents, based on consequences of moral choices)
- Obedience: concerned with avoiding punishment
- Self-Interest: about gaining rewards
- Conventional Stage
- Conformity: emphasis on "good girl" "good boy" orientation for approval of others
- Law and Order: maintains social order at highest regard
- Postconventional Morality
- Social Contract: moral rules designed for a reason of greater good
- Universal Human Ethics: reasons made in consideration of abstract principles (right or wrong)
Zone of Proximal Development
(Vygotsky) Gaining skills of success requires help from of a more knowledgeable other.
The closer proximity you are to the more knowledgeable, the easier it is to learn. Cognitive skills develop in accordance with interpersonal and cultural rules.
Theory of Mind
Ability to sens how another mind works. (role playing a good game for children to think how others think)
Reference Group Concept
The way we perceive ourselves is based on who we are comparing ourselves to.
Thoughts, beliefs, traits, and behaviors that stay the same for an individual across time and different locations.
Personality vs Identity
- Personality - how we act
- Identity - who we are
Four theories of Personality
- -psychoanalytic (psychodynamic)
- -humanistic (phenomenological)
- -type and trait
Sympathetic Nervous System (what happens when activated)
- Activated by stress:
- -increase heart rate
- -redistribute blood to muscles of locomotion
- -increase blood glucose levels
- -relax bronchi (dilate)
- -decrease digestion and peristalsis
- -dilates eyes to max light intake
- -releases epinephrine into blood
Parasympathetic Nervous System (what happens when activated)
- -constricts pupils
- -stimulates flow of saliva
- -constricts bronchi
- -slows heartbeat
- -stimulates peristalsis and secretion of gut
- -stimulate bile release
- -contracts bladder
Psychoanalytic Perspective (Psychodynamic Theories of Personality)
Views that personality as resulting from unconscious urges and desires.
Id (Freud's 3 major entities of personality)
It is basic, primal, has inborn urges to survive and reproduce. It functions according to the pleasure principle (immediate gratification).
The primary process is: obtain satisfaction now, not later.
Ego (Freud's 3 major entities of personality)
Acts when you can't immediately fulfill needs.
Secondary Process: it inhibits or desires or guide's id's pleasure principle (immediate gratification). Ego cannot be truly separate of the id.
It is to meet the demands of reality. It deals with perception, problem solving.
Moderates super ego.
Superego and 2 parts (Freud's 3 major entities of personality)
Personality's perfectionist, constantly judging our actions and responding with pride or contempt.
- Conscience: collection of improper action that resulted in punishment
- Ego Ideal: collection of actions that were rewarded
What 3 main categories does the access to the id, ego, and superego fall under?
- Conscious access
- Preconscious (unaware) access
- Unconscious (represssed) access
What two categories do instincts fall under according to Freud?
- -Life instincts
- -Death instincts
What are the 7 defense mechanisms according to Freud?
- (ego's recourse for relieving anxiety caused by clash of id and superego)
- 1) repression
- 2) suppression
- 3) regression
- 4) reaction formation
- 5) projection
- 6) rationalization
- 7) displacement
- 8) sublimation
Repression vs Suppression (2 of 7 defense mechanisms according to Freud)
- Repression: forcing undesired thoughts and urges to unconscious
- Suppression: deliberate conscious form of forgetting
Regression (7 defense mechanisms according to Freud)
Reversion to early developmental state.
Ex. Older children reverting back to childhood habits.
Reaction Formation (7 defense mechanisms according to Freud)
Suppress urges by unconsciously converting them to the exact opposite.
Ex. When you love someone, you try to hate them because you know you can't have them.
Projection (7 defense mechanisms according to Freud)
Individuals attribute their undesired feelings of others as if the other person feels the same.
Ex. When you hate someone and these thoughts turn into the idea that, that person hates you.
Rationalization (7 defense mechanisms according to Freud)
Justification of a behavior in a manner that is acceptable to self and in society.
Ex. What difference will one bad action make in this world?
Displacement (7 defense mechanisms according to Freud)
Transferring undesired urge from one person, to another object.
Ex. Being angry at someone and lashing out on another person.
Sublimation (7 defense mechanisms according to Freud)
Transforming unacceptable urges into socially acceptable behaviors.
Ex. Pent up sexual urges sublimate into a drive for business success or artistic creativity.
Carl Jung's thoughts on libido
Libido is a form of psychic energy, not just sexual energy.
What 2 parts (2 subparts) compose the ego according to Carl Jung?
- 2) Unconscious
- -Personal Unconscious (repressed thoughts we are unaware of)
- -Collective Unconscious (residual thoughts shared by experiences of early ancestors)
4 Archetypes according to Carl Jung
Archetype: emotional elements of personality
- Persona: the aspects of our personality we present to the world
- Anima (inner man) Animus (inner woman) that is repressed by the opposite sex
- Shadow: unpleasant and socially reprehensible thoughts, feelings, and actions of consciousness
What is the self according to Jung?
It is the point of intersection between collective unconsciousness, personal consciousness, and conscious mind.
Carl Jung's 3 Dichotomies of Personality (plus one extra)
- 1) Extraversion vs introversion
- 2) Sensing vs intuiting (abstract info)
- 3) Thinking vs feeling
(orderliness preferred) vs perceiving
What did Alder believe to be main motivation of personality? (2 types and how they affect society)
Striving for superiority drives personality.
- -striving benefits society = enhances personality
- -selfish striving = yields disorder
Alder's definition of inferiority complex
Individuals sense of incompleteness, imperfection, inferiority.
Alder's definition of creative self and how it affects your style of life
Creatives Self: force that shapes individuals uniqueness and establishes their personality
Style of Life: manifestation of a creative self and way a person achieves superiority
Alder's definition of fictional finalism
People are motivated by expectations of life more than experiences.
3 Main differences between Alder, Freud, Jung
- The prime means of motivation are different according to each person.
- Freud: behavior motivated by instincts
- Jung: behavior motivated by inborn archetypes
- Alder: behavior motivated by striving for superiority
Who is Karen Horney? What her thought on neurotic personalities? (4 reasons of when they become problematic)
- She argued against Freud. She believed that neurotic personalities are governed by 1 of 10 needs that become problematic when:
- -disproportionate in intensity
- -indiscriminate in application
- -partially disregard reality
- -provoke intense anxiety
According to Karen Horney, what do people do to overcome basic anxiety and basic hostility? (3 routes)
- Basic Anxiety: inadequate parenting leads to child's vulnerability and helplessness
- Basic Hostility: neglect and rejection lead to anger in a child
- 3 solutions to overcome this:
- -child moves toward people that have a good will to obtain security
- -child moves against people to gain an upperhand
- -people withdraw and move away from people
Kareny Horney's object relations theory
- (psychodynamic theory of personality)
- Parents and caregivers thoughts and relation persist into adulthood and impact our interactions with others.
Humanistic (Phenomenological) theorists vs Psychoanalysts (difference in focus)
- Humanistic (Phenomenological) Theorists: they focus on a person-centered approach describing how healthy people strive toward self-realization (personality is a result of conscious feelings and needs)
- Psychoanalysts: focus on "sick" individuals and their troubling urges
Gestalt Therapy (humanistic psychotherapy)
Practitioners take a holistic views of self, and see humans more as a complete person, rather than reducing them to behaviors or drives.
What did Abraham Maslow mean for someone to have peak experiences? (humanistic psychotherapy)
Peak Experiences: profound and deeply moving experiences in a person's life which have important and lasting effects on the individual.
George Kelly's personal construct psychology (humanistic psychotherapy)
Kelly believed that everyone is like a scientist. They construct a scheme of anticipation of what others will do, based on their knowledge, perception, and relationships with other people.
What is psychotherapy according to George Kelly? (humanistic psychotherapy)
A process of insight whereby the individual acquires new constructs that will allow them to successfully predict events.
What is client-centered (person centered, nondirective) therapy? (Carl Rogers) (humanistic psychotherapy)
That is when the client is directed toward solving their own problems, come to their own conclusions, and take their own positive actions toward subjects.
Unconditional Positive Regard (humanistic psychotherapy)
A therapeutic technique where the therapist accepts everything the client has to say in order to promote a positive therapeutic environment.
They attempt to create a taxonomy of personal traits.
They prefer to describe individual personality as clusters of behaviors.
William Sheldon divided people into two groups; Type A and Type B. What kind of people are these. (Type Theorist)
- Type A: people who tend to have a competitive an compulsive character
- Type B: people who where generally laid-back and relaxed
PEN model (trait theorist)
- Psychoticism: a measure of conformity and social deviance
- Extraversion: a measure of tolerance for social interactions and stimulations
- Neuroticism: a measure of emotional arousal in stressful situations
- Later made into the Big Five (OCEAN):
What 3 basic traits did Gordon Allport list? (trait theorist)
- Cardinal Traits: traits around which a person organizes their lives
- Central Traits: major characteristics of a personality that are easy to infer
- Secondary Traits: personal characteristics that are more limited in occurrence (the ones you see in a close group of friends)
According to Gordon Allport, what is functional autonomy?
A behavior that continues despite satisfaction of the drive that originally created the behavior.
Like a hunter continuing hunting, even after they have had plenty enough to eat.
Behaviorist perspective of Skinner (personality)
Personality is a simple reflection of behaviors that have been reinforced over time, thus you should focus on changing behaviors through operant conditioning.
What do social cognitive perspectives focus on?
Focuses not on just how the environment influences our behavior, but also how we interact with that environment.
What do behaviorist perspectives focus on?
Concepts of operant conditioning.
The idea that our thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and environment all interact with each other to determine our actions in a given situation.
Biological perspective on personality
Our genes hold our personality traits.