Geology final

  1. Uniformatarinism
    Present is the key to the past
  2. Plate tectonics
    the theory of how the plates move past each other and interact
  3. What is the age of the earth?
    4.6 billion years old
  4. Hypothesis
    A guess on how something works that can be tested and proven
  5. Theory
    The best possible explanation that we have, subject to new evidence
  6. Law
    Something that is always true
  7. 4 main spheres
    Lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere
  8. Earths two main energy sources
    Sun and internal heat
  9. Glacier
    Permanent moving rivers of ice that flow downhill driven by gravity
  10. Glacial ice
    Made of compressed snow that consists of about 20% air or less
  11. Snow line
    The line at which glaciers no longer form (altitude line)
  12. Basal sliding
    The act of a glacier sliding over a bead due to meltwater under the ice acting as a lubricant
  13. Crevasse
    A crack in the top of a glacier
  14. abrasion (glacter)
    the bottom of a glacier eroding the rock underneath it
  15. plucking
    the Bottom of a glacier plucking rocks off the bottom and carryting them with it
  16. striations (glaciers)
    scratches or gouges cut into rock by glacial abrasion
  17. Rock flour
    fine grained silt sized particles of rock gnereated by mechanical griding during glacial erosion
  18. alpine glacier
    glaciers that begin high up in Athe mountians
  19. continenetal glacier
    a huge landmass of ice, generally spreads out from a central mass of ice
  20. Zone of accumulation
    The place where snow is added to the top of a glacier
  21. Zone of wastage
    The place where a glacier is thinning and melting
  22. Equilibrium line
    The place where snow addition and melting is even
  23. Calving
    Breaking off of chunks of ice at the edge of a glacier
  24. Out wash plain
    The plain formed of glacial sediments deposited my meltwater out wash at the end of a glacier
  25. Lag deposit
    Course residue left behind while finer particles have been swept away
  26. Glacial till
    The sediment deposited when a glacier ends
  27. Moraine
    Any glacially formed accumulation of uncnsolidated glacial debris
  28. Terminus
    The end of a glacier
  29. Retreat
    When glaciers are melting faster so they don't go as far
  30. Advance
    When more ice is being formed so glaciers go farther than before
  31. Eccentricity
    The shape of earths orbit
  32. Obliquely
    The tilt of the earths axis
  33. Precession
    The wobble of the earths axis
  34. Milankovitch sycles
    Way of describing the collective effects of changes in the earths movements upon its climate
  35. What shapes of valley does a glacier make
  36. When was the peak of the last glacier period
  37. Greenhouse Effect
    Trapping of infrared radiation
  38. Proxy
    Indirect measurements
  39. Greenhouse gases
    Include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and chlorofluorocarbons
  40. Sea ice
    frozen seawater that floats on the ocean's surface
  41. Land ice
    Glaciers, ice sheets, ice caps and permafrost
  42. Sea level
    The height of the sea in relation to the land
  43. Positive feedback loop
    The process makes itself go faster because its products speed up/continue the reaction
  44. Nonrenewable enenergy souces
    Energy sources that you use once and are done
  45. Renewable energy sources
    Energy sources that do not run out
  46. Fossil fuels
    Fuels that come from dead organic matter that has decayed
  47. Petroleum
  48. Source rock
    Marine sedimentary basin that accumulated organic material
  49. Maturation
    Source rock is buried rapidly without o2, this raises the pressure and temperature
  50. Migration
    • Oil moves from the source rock being filtered continuing to mature
    • Oil moves because it's less dense than rock and is trying to get to lower pressure
  51. Entrapment
    Oil is trapped in a geologic structure
  52. Oil trap
    A geologic structure that traps oil, can be a fault, fold or pinch out
  53. Peak oil
    The maximum rate of extraction of petroleum
  54. Natural gas
    Hydrocarbon gas mixture that is primarily methane
  55. Hydro fracking
    Using water to break up rocks and extracting oil and gas
  56. Coal
    • Mineral of fossilized carbon. Combustible back sedimentary rock
    • Heat and pressure metamorphose organic matter
  57. Lignite
    coal that is 30% carbon
  58. Bitumen
    Coal that is 30-90% carbon
  59. Anthracite
    Coal that is more than 90% carbon
  60. Nuclear energy
    Use the natural decay of uranium to generate energy
  61. Solar energy
    Use the sun to generate enrgy
  62. Wind energy
    Use the wind to generate energy
  63. Geothermal energy
    Use the earth's internal heat to generate power
  64. Why did earth's oxygen supply increase at the end of the Precambrian
    A new life form that used photosynthesis evolved
  65. Describe the greenhouse effect
    Additional greenhouse gases trap more of the Suns energy and gradually heat up the earth
  66. 4 steps to oil formation
    • Source rock formation
    • Maturation
    • Migration
    • Entrapment
  67. What geologic structures form good oil traps
    Fault, fold, pinch out
  68. In what rock type is most oil found
    (sedimentary rocks)
  69. What part of oil formation filters the oil
  70. How are different grades of coal formed
    Percentage of carbon
  71. When were most of earth's coal deposits formed
    Barbs inferiors period
  72. How does geothermal energy work
    Using the earth's internal heat to heat water to spin turbines
  73. Evaporation
    Moving from liquid to gas state
  74. Condensation
    Moving from gas to solid state
  75. Melting
    Moving from solid to liquid state
  76. Freezing
    From liquid to solid
  77. Sublimation
    From solid to gas
  78. Water cycle
    The movement of water as it is recycled
  79. Precipitation
  80. Infiltration
    Absorption of water by a material like the earth
  81. Runoff
    Water that is not absorbed by the earth or other medium
  82. Evapotranspiration
    • Movement of water to the air from sources such as soil, plants, and water bodies
    • Evaporation from land + transpiration from plants
  83. Channel
    body of water that joins together to form a drainage system
  84. Drainage system
    Network of channels that moves water
  85. Stream
    Any flowing body of water following a channel
  86. River
    A major branch of a stream system
  87. Watershed
    The total area feeding water into a stream
  88. Floodplain
    Relatively level area surrounding the flowing water
  89. Discharge
    The amount of water passing a given point in a measured period of time
  90. Sediment load
    How much sediment is in a river
  91. Gradient
    How steep someting is
  92. Continental Divide
    Drainage basin on one side of the divide feeds into one ocean and the other side of the divide feeds into another ocean or sea
  93. Meandering stream
    Stream that turns left and right as it goes
  94. Braided stream
    Stream with lots of islands in it
  95. Thalweg
    Line drawn to define the deepest channel in a stream
  96. Point bar
    De positional feature that acculumlates on the inner bed of streams
  97. Cutbank
    Outside bank of a water ahannel which is continually undergoing erosion (can cause an under earth portion of the stream
  98. Pool
    A collection of watter
  99. Riffle
    Shallow section of a stream or river with a rapid current and a surface broken by gravel rubble or boulders
  100. Base level
    The lowest elevation that a stream can erode to (is either the elevation of a lake or the ocean)
  101. Delta
    A landform that forms from sediment deposition by a river as it leaves its mouth and enters a slower body of water that cannot transport the sediment
  102. Suspension
    Dissolved and solid particles carried in water
  103. Saltation
    Skipping along the bottom
  104. Bedload
    Pushing and rolling along on the bottom but never rising up into the fluid
  105. What are the two main hypotheses of where Earth’s water came from?
    Degassing of the mantle, comets and or asteroids
  106. What % of Earth’s water is fresh water? Be able to list the Earth’s water sources in order of their relative abundances.
    3% fresh, glaciers>groundwater>lakes>atmosphere
  107. Given the cross sectional area and the velocity, be able to calculate the stream discharge.
    Velocity X depth X width
  108. What is the valley shape that a stream cuts?
    V shape
  109. What 3 factors determine whether a stream is meandering or braided?
    Gradient, sediment load, discharge
  110. Where are deltas found?
    At the end of a river where the river slows into a larger body of water
  111. How does plate tectonics affect surface waters?
    Changes slope, watersheds, mass wasting changes things
  112. Aquifer
    A rock that is both porous and permeable
  113. Aquitard (aquiclude)
    A rock that is not permeable
  114. Saturated zone
    A zone where water fills all pore spaces
  115. Unsaturated zone
    Water and air in pore spaces
  116. Water table
    The water level underneath the ground, varies by season
  117. Porosity
    Amount of empty space within an aquifer
  118. Permeability
    Ability to transmit groundwater
  119. Unconfined aquifer
    An aquifer that is open to the atmostphere
  120. Confined aquifer
    An aquifer that is separated from the atmosphere by an aquitard
  121. Hydraulic pressure
    Water moves from high to low pressure, this is pressure on the water
  122. Recharge
    The addition of water by Some means
  123. Artesian well
    water reaches the ground surface under the natural pressure of the aquifer
  124. Saltwater intrusion
    Saltwater entering the freshwater water zone and contaminating it
  125. Stalactite
    From the roof of a cave
  126. Stalagmite
    From the floor of a cave
  127. Spring
    Where groundwater flows to the surface
  128. Columnar geyser
    Steam pushing cool water out of the constriction
  129. Pool geyser
    Geyser that is open in a large often deep pool
  130. Fumarole
    Vents that allow volcanic gases to excape
  131. Hot spring
    Groundwater in contact with a heat source in the crust
  132. Aquifers are most common in what type of rock?
    Sedimentary rocks
  133. How does the water table change with the seasons?
    Up in the wet season down in the dry season
  134. How does an artesian well work?
    Water pressure pushes water up. Generally underneath the water level
  135. Why are caves potential indicators of past climate?
    Rock must be exposed to abundant fresh water in the past
  136. What are the 3 basic elements of geysers?
    • supply of hot and cold water
    • Heat source
    • Reservoir and a plumbing system
  137. What are the two types of geysers?
    • columnar geyser
    • Pool geyser
  138. Ferrel cell
    Average motion of air in the mid latitudes, characterized by sinking air near 30 degrees and raising air farther poleward, results in westerly surface winds
  139. Hadley cell
    Tropical atmospheric circulation that features air rising near the equator flowing poleward
  140. Orographic effect
    Change in atmospheric conditions caused by a change in elevation usually due to mountains
  141. Rain Shadow
    A dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area, mountains block the passage of rain and cast a shadow of dryness behind them
  142. Stoss slope (windward slope)
    gentle eroded slopes on the up glacier or upstream side
  143. Lee slope (slip face)
    Less eroded steeper slopes
  144. Loess
    Aeolian sediment formed by the accumulation of wind blown silt
  145. Dune
    Pile of loose sand
  146. Eolian
    Borne deposited produced or eroded by the wind
  147. Ventifact
    Stone shaped by the erosive action of wind blown sand
  148. Desert pavement
    Extensive lag deposit of coarse sediment is left after wind blows fine grains away
  149. Yardang
    Rock sculpted by sand abrasion
  150. Barchan dune
    Formed with a strong wind in one direction, crescent shape with horns, small amount of sand, limited vegetation
  151. Transverse dune
    • Weak wind in one direction
    • Large amounts of sand deposited perpendicular to wind
    • Limited veg
  152. Parabolic dune
    • Arms stabilized upwind by veg
    • Crescent shapes with horns in upwind direction
  153. Longitudinal dune
    • Winds flowing in opposing directions
    • Two slip faces aligned with wind
  154. Star dune
    • Multidirectional winds
    • Grow taller instead of moving
  155. Sand sea
    • Large regions of wind blown sand
    • Sand covers more than 20% of the grounds surface
  156. Alluvial fan
    triangle shaped deposit of gravel sand and even smaller pieces of sediment, usually created as flowing water interacts with mountains hills or the steep walls of canyons
  157. Playa lake
    Round hollows in the ground, only present at certain times of the year

    • Do deserts only exist in hot climates? Why or why not?
    • No it's only a lack of rain
  158. Why are many of the Earth’s deserts clustered around 30º latitude?
    Air cells prevent much rain
  159. What causes a rain shadow and how does this contribute to forming a desert?
    Mountain range traps clouds, drops precipation rate
Card Set
Geology final