When did the British Empire begin?
Late 16th century
When was the British Empire mostly over by?
Mid 20th Century
When did the British Empire massively expand between?
Between the 17th and 18th century
What was so special about the British Empire?
It was the largest empire in the world
When did the process of decolonisation begin?
When was the end of the colonial rule in other parts of the empire?
Between 1945 and 1965
How did colonialism create gendered subjects?
- - Colonialists imposed their own versions of gender relations (Victorian Britain), including legislation, education, social and religious institutions.
- - Women were taught obedience to their husbands and women's rights were largely ignored.
- - It re-emphasised the idea of a new education male colonial subject and how women were dependent on men, creating new gender inequality and the rise of gender subjectivity
What did colonialism do?
Created the spread of Christianity, civilisation and commerce
What roles did colonialism create?
Breadwinners, good women, domestic workers etc - creating new gendered subjects
What ideas were the colonialists similar to?
What were the paradoxes of the Empire?
- The British were concerned with rescuing the black and brown women from harmful practices and creating new possibilities for women, including missionaries and colonial officials being very supportive of women and girls' education
- Yet women were denied citizenship rights, access to resources and created dehumanising effects of colonials rule, which had a particular effect on women.
- Some policies were very liberating, yet many were demeaning and demoralising
What were missionaries and colonial officials very supportive of?
Supportive of women and girls' education
What were women denied during colonialism?
Were denied citizenship rights, access to resources and were subject to dehumanising and demeaning effects
What were the British concerned about during colonialism?
The British were concerned with rescuing black and brown women from harmful practices from the 'backward' rulers
What happened in 1929?
Colonial Development Act
What happened in 1944?
The IMF and the World Bank
What happened in 1945?
Colonial Development and Welfare Act
What happened in 1961?
US Development Act
What was the Colonial Development and Welfare Act 1945?
Britain's commitment to development of the empire and further development of the colonies
What was particularly key about WW2?
There was lots of emerging post war legislation to do with development
What was so key about the policies implemented in Britain in terms of gender? (1929 Colonial Development Act, 1944 IMF and WB, 1945 Colonial Development and Welfare Act and 1961 US Development Act)?
Women were excluded and marginalised from these acts and it dismissed how they could be relevant to development
Why is it such a shock that women were not involved in the colonialism and development policies?
Women were very active in the many of the campaigns for decolonisation in the 1940s and 1950s, yet they were excluded from many of the more formal roles and power
What was the 1929 Colonial Development Act?
- This is one of the first acts implemented that focused on development. It emphasised that colonies aren't really capable of governing themselves. They are aware of developing but they cannot do it themselves.
- It also actively excluded women from development and failed to recognise their local roles in institutions.
When was post-imperialism?
What was the post-imperial in women's role?
Push and emergence for advocating of the approval of women's role in societies
What was the post WW2 project?
A project of post-imperial international intervention in support of "developing countries"
What is the history of development seen as?
A historical process of capitalist expansion
How is development normally viewed as?
The ways in which we can view development from a colonial point of view as expansion - industrial expansion
What was the post imperial view of gender and development?
- Push and emergence for advocating of the approval of women's role in societies
- Urging agents to not simply exclusively involve men, (because they have been dominated by men) and acknowledge the roles of women's involvement and recognise their subordination
When was the Welfare Approach dominant?
In the 1960s
What approach was before Women In Development?
What was the Welfare Approach?
- Focused on women as reproducers as mothers and as child rearers and completely ignored their role as producers.
- Goods and services are handed out to women and not actively involving them in a participatory way
More information on the Welfare Approach 1960s
- Focusing on women as producers in their domestic role
- Top down approach
- Seen as housewives and nothing else. The only attention they received was through being a mother.
- Highlights that development planners would basically result to stereotype views of what women do
- Creation of gender subjectivities, yet wasn't an accurate assumption as clearly women have many other roles
- Goods and services are handed out to women and not actively involving them in a participatory way
- No sense of significance of what is important for women
- This approach focused on women as reproducers as mothers and as child rearers and completely ignored their role as producers
- The belief was, and to some extent correctly so, that women are central to the family and by improving women's welfare (targeting women), the welfare of the family would improve
What was the belief by helping women in the welfare approach?
By improving women's welfare (targeting women), the welfare of the family would improve
Was the welfare approach top down or bottom up?
How did the welfare approach view women?
Viewed women through their roles of producers and not looking at their other responsibilities. No sense of significance of what is important for women
What are practical gender needs?
Needs women have in their given roles in society (e.g. as mothers, as those who are responsible for food preparation etc). They are not challenging women's role in society
What are strategic gender needs/
Needs women have in terms of changing their given roles in society (e.g. entering labour markets, reducing and sharing domestic tasks etc); these are thus the needs identified to transform existing subordinate relationships between men and women - transforming the existing position within society
What are the two significant gender needs?
Practical and strategic
Why are practical and strategic needs important?
It's important to see which one is being achieved or targeted
Critiques of practical and strategic needs?
- Where does one begin and end
- Suggests something is one or the other
- What might be practical need in someone's life could be strategic in someone elses
- Could be different for someone over time
- Who is defining and categorising? The people themselves? Other people?
Who introduced the terms practical and strategic gender needs?
When was practical and strategic needs introduced?
Who popularised the Practical and strategic gender needs?
Definition of sex
Biological differences between men and women
Definition of gender
Socially constructed differences between genders
When did the idea of gender emerge?
Critique of definition of sex
- Women have different experiences everywhere so sex itself can be socially constructed.
- The interpretations between men and women does not necessarily come down to the biological differences. It is culturally variable and being a man/woman means different in different countries
When was the emergence of Women in Development?
After the welfare approach. In the 1970s
What does WID mean?
Women in Development
What was the main driving force of WID?
What was Ester Boseup's book called which raised awareness of women in development?
Women's Role in Economic Developmen
When was Ester Boserup's book released?
What does Ester Boserup's book "Women's role in economic development" discuss?
- It discussed colonisation and modernisation on sexual division of labour and the detrimental effect this has on women.
- Women have always had good productive roles in society which has not been looked at before
When was the Conference on Women in Mexico City?
When was the Conference on Women in Nairobi?
When was the UN Decade for Women?
When was the Conference on Women in Beijing?
When was WID prominent?
Who came up with the term WID?
Early 1970s - Washington based network of female development professionals coined the phrase WID, as a result of being inspired by Ester Boserup
What did WID achieve?
Institutionalisation of Women in Development
What was the key idea of WID?
Women are like men and need to tap into their productive potential so they can contribute to development and recognise their multiple roles and responsibilities as well
How do we compensate for the gender blindness which has happened?
- It's not about forgetting about reproductive roles but focusing on productive roles.
- Once we focus on women's productive roles, whether it's in the informal sector, farming, rural economy etc, then we can encourage and support them to contribute to development.
- In this sense, they are seen as a resource which can be used
What does WID assume?
There is an assumption that by simply including women in development, this would would lead to better development and they will be emancipated as a result
What is so important about WID?
Women as well as men should benefit from development
Sum up of WID - brief
Women are also agents of development
When was the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women?
What happened in 1979?
The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
What was the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women?
It recognised women's rights to receive training, education and extension of services and equal treatment in agrarian reform
Why was the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women so significant?
It would help and support women's productive roles and potential
Results of the WID approach?
- Donors provided support for projects targeting women. The aim of these projects was to help poor women to contribute more effectively in their capacity as economic providers for families. It had a very strong focus on women as economic providers
- Women's bureaus were established in national ministries, or separate ministries for women's affairs were set up in many countries
- 1979 - Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
Aim of the WID projects set up?
The aim of these projects was to help poor women to contribute more effectively in their capacity as economic providers for families - very strong focus on women as economic providers
Critiques of WID
- Focus on practical gender needs
- Inaccurate emphasis on what women could contribute to development
- False dichotomy between women's productive and reproductive roles
- Materialistic approach
- Isolate women as a separate category
- Women are expected to compensate for public provisions
- Separate entities (bureaus) - need for gender mainsteaming
Critique of WID - focus on practical gender needs - more information
- The focus was on practical gender needs i.e. the needs women identify within their social accepted roles in society. These do not challenge the gender division of labour or women's subordinate position in society - supposed to be supporting women's roles of involvement in economic activities.
- Policies result in their practical gender needs - politically challenging interventions do not often do anything to challenge their roles
WID critique - emphasis on women's role - more detail
- The WID approach placed an undue emphasis on what women could contribute to development
- Was an instrumentalist approach, with a focus on women as a means to the end of development
- Not what it can achieve for women
- Instead of thinking how women can achieve something through education, it is mainly used is to reduce the population
- Instrumentalist in the sense that you are using a particularl group as a target to achieve another goal
Critique of WID - False dichotomy - more information
- Emphasis on women's productive role has resulted in a false dichotomy between women's productive and reproductive roles. In reality, they are interlinked - the two are related.
- There's no point thinking about them as two separate entities when one will clearly impact the other - the idea of a double burden
- To really implement policies and family needs, we have to be aware of these different roles
WID critique - materialistic - more information
- WID identified women's lack of access to resources as the key to their subordination
- It failed to raise questions about the role of gender relations and ideologies in restricting women's access in the first place
- Materialistic and economically drive - does not look at the role of beliefs, religion or culture when these are just as important
- You can have access to incomes but this doesn't necessarily mean that they are free from subordination or generate equality
WID critique - isolating women - more information
- WID tended to isolate women as a separate and often homogeneous category, and did not look into the varied nature of gender relations themselves
- We have to look at both men and women (GAD approach)
- What are the effects on men?
- Need to look a women's relationships with men and other people in society
WID critique - paternalistic - more information
Viewed as paternalistic and doesn't take into account the wider structural power layout
WID critique - male exaggeration - more information
- Argued that there was (and still is) a tendency to male exaggerated and unfounded claims about women's usefulness to development (Razavi and Miller)
- Too much emphasis on what women can do for development - they do not make up for the loss of particularly services, etc, they are just more labour
Who claimed that there is a tendency to male exaggerated and unfounded claims about women's usefulness to development? (WID critique)
Razavi and Miller
Why did anger arise for the WID approach?
It may have given women a higher profile in policy discourse, but women were now expected to compensate for public provisions
Why are the critiques of WID important?
Because they link into GAD and what GAD was framed on and tried to target - it was a structure to build upon
Critique of WID - women's bureaus - more information
- The establishment of women's bureaus, although a good thing, were created as separate entities and are not properly integrated into the development system
- Hence the need for the concept of gender mainstreaming
What did Naila Kabeer argue?
- Naila Kabeer argued that WID's recognition of women's productive potential has been achieved at the expense f an appreciation for their unpaid work within the household. This highlights what Kabeer terms the "gender trap of the market solution"
- The WID approach does not challenge the market approach
What does the WID approach not challenge?
It does not challenge the market approach
What term did Naila Kabeer use?
"Gender trap of the market solution"
What does GAD stand for?
Gender and Development
The Emergence of GAD - more information
Foundations IDS/Sussex workshop on the Subordination of Women in 1976 - Ann Whitehead, Kate Young and Olivia Harris - influences the theoretical influence of GA
Who were the 3 people who influenced the theoretical influence of GAD?
Ann Whitehead, Kate Young and Olivia Harris
Brief summary of GAD
- Focused on the structuralist approach when we look at gender - in order to address the subordination, we have to look at where these inequalities emerge in the structure
- The relationship between different genders
- Transformation of structures that subordinate women
When was GAD foundation built?
In 1976 in Foundations IDS and the Sussex workshop on the Subordination of Women in 1976
GAD - more information
- The GAD approach challenges existing gender roles. It is based on the premise that to focus on women in isolation ignores the real problem, which us women's subordinate status to men
- GAD thus seeks to tackle subordination through an explicit emphasis on socially and historically constructed relations between men and women. In doing this, GAD broadens the focus from practical gender needs to strategic gender needs
- Strong emphasis on history and the relations and the wider structure in which this inequality is taking place
- Practical to strategic gender need
What does GAD strongly emphasise?
The history and relations and the wider structure in which gender inequality takes place
What does GAD challenge?
Challenges existing gender roles
What is GAD premise based on?
Based on the premise that to focus on women in isolation ignores the real problem which is women's subordinate status to men
How does GAD seek to tackle subordination?
GAD seeks to tackle subordination through an explicit emphasis on socially and historically constructed relations between men and women
What is the Social Relations Framework?
- Theorises gender relations as relations of power
- Strong emphasis on power in understanding the relationship between men and women - including race, class, ethnicity etc - it's simply the effect of being a man or a woman
What theory underpins GAD?
The Social Relations Approach
What is the Social Relations Approach?
- Sees gender as referring to those dimensions of social relations that create differences in the position of men and women in social processes. This approach emphasises the social structures, processes and relations that give rise to women's disadvantage position in any given society
- We have to think about the larger structures of redistributing power
How can we end women's subordination, according to the Social Relations approach?
Ending women's subordination is seen as more than reallocating economic resources. It also involves redistributing power
What is gender mainstreaming?
The process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action including legislation, policies and programmes, in any area and at all levels" (UNESCO, Gender Equality and Equity, 2000)
Who gave the definition of gender mainsteaming?
UNESCO, Gender Equality and Equity, 2000
GAD focus on policies - more information
GAD focuses on gender relations and treats policy interventions themselves as needing a gender analysis in order to assess their possible impacy
What does gender mainstreaming do?
It ensures that gender is integral in implementation of policies, and the evaluation of all programmes. It starts of at an individual level. It raises staff awareness, staff procedures and implementing it into the work policies. If it is not implemented here, then it simply won' work when it is implemented on a larger scale
Aim of gender mainstreaming?
To raise staff awareness and to implement gender into policies better. Gender would be more effective if it was an integral part in policies. It would be normalised more
Empowerment approach - more information
- It's origins are in grass roots organisations of women in the South. It sees the origins of subordination in race, history, class, caste and state
- Focus on colonialisation and capitalism
- Seeks to empower women through a redistribution of power within and between societies
- Between the North and South, different communities and within.
What is the Empowerment approach linked to?
What does DAWN stand for?
Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era
When was DAWN founded?
When was DAWN launched?
In the World Conference on Women in Nairobi in 1985
What is DAWN?
is a transnational alternative policy group and network of feminist scholars, researchers and activists from the Global South, who produce and disseminate analyses, proposals, and information tools oriented towards the enhancement of economicand gender justice andecological sustainability
What are the 4 key points that DAWN focuses upon?
Political Economy of GlobalizationSexual and Reproductive Health and RightsPolitical Restructuring and Social TransformationPolitical Ecology and Sustainability
How as GAD focused on masculinity?
- Incorporated HIV/AIDS and reproductive health programmes to target men too
- Focus on men because of the failure of the WID programmes and the recognition that men have to be incorporated too
Why is masculinity a focus in GAD?
Because of the failure of the WID programmes and the recognition that men need to be targeted too in development
Why does the masculinity programmes in GAD not focus on?
Does not focus on parenting or fathering
Critiques of GAD
- Gender frameworks to become depoliticised
- Heteronormative and ethnocentric
- Reality is very complex
GAD critique - Gender frameworks to become depoliticised - more information
- There has been a tendency for gender frameworks to become depoliticised as they become institutionalised. Gender is seen as a technocratic process which no longer addresses issues of power (BAden and Goetx)
- Gender is seen as a technocratic exercise with transformative agendas
- Things turn into a radical idea and the focus is no longer on development
What did Baden and Goetz suggest in terms of GAD critiques?
Gender is seen as a technocratic process which no longer addresses issues of power because it has turned into a radical idea and no longer focuses on development
GAD critique - materialistic - more information
- Overly economic focus
- What about the role of culture, ideology, religion etc?
GAD critique - heteronormative and ethnocentric - more information
- GAD assumes a biological difference of sex, rather than socially constructed - basis
- Not looking at any diversity between cultures, in terms of gender identity or sexuality
- Also viewed about the people who are being developed
GAD critique - dichotomy - more information
- Perceives a dichotomy between men and women
- It sees men as the problem and women as victims - even when there is an involvement of men
- Still seen as binary opposites which does not allow for the crossing of boundaries
What happened from the 1980s onwards?
Neo-liberal policies (think about structural adjustment) contributed to major declines in standards of living in many countries (slash of funding for health, education and food) with evidence that women were more adversely affected than men, especially in relation to the marketisation of social and health services
Gender and Neoliberalism: Policies, Problems and Paradoxes - more information
- 1980s onwards - Neo-liberal policies (Structural adjustment) contributed to major declines in standards of living in many countries (slash of funding for health and education and food) with evidence that women more adversely were affected than men, especially in relation to the marketisation of social and health services - women absorb these cuts and are buffers
- Paradox for women: new opportunities in emerging markets, rhetoric of choice and opening up of labour markets permitting some women greater freedom
- Women were targeted in the export manufacturing, garment production and computer production which was small pay, repetitive jobs
What was the paradox of neoliberal policies?
- New opportunities in emerging markets, with the rhetoric of choice and opening up of labour markets permitting some women greater freedom
- Yet women were targeted to do jobs such as export manufacturing, garment and computer production, which were small pay, repetitive jobs
Gender in the 1990s - more information
- 1990s UN Conferences - Vienna, Cairo, Beijing were all significant for women
- Beijing POA major shaper of gender and development policy/practice: institutionalises "gender mainstreaming" "gender equality", mechanisms such as quotas, national machineries etc - focusing and institutionalising gender
- Late 1990s and early 2000s - failure of gender mainstreaming - notion as gender running out of steam
What happened in the late 1990s and early 2000s?
Failure of gender mainstreaming - notion as gender running out of steam
Where were the 1990s UN Gender Conferences held?
Vienna, Cairo and Beijing
What did the Beijing POA do?
It was a major shaper of gender and development policy and practice - instutionalises gender mainstreaming and gender equality - mechanisms such as quotas and national machineries
Gender in the 2000s - more information
- "Ennui" (Molyneux): failure of gender mainstreaming, gender equality runs out of stream
- From gender to women and girls
- From gender equality to smart economics - you can develop economies by empowering women and girls - instrumentalism which we saw with WID
- Sharp divide of women and men - critiques of where we are now and the way in which women are positioned and viewed
- Rise and rise of "women's empowerment" as a magic bullet - new challenges ahead
- Movement back to women involvement and focus
- Just as there was a focus on the capacities of women
- Now a focus on the girl effect - girls and women are seen as hardworking, efficient and can manage double burdens
- Can be seen as an investment
- Seen as morally superior to men - the idea of an education women and an educated nation
- Lose sight of structural context and gender relations broadly
Critique of gender in the 2000s
- "Ennui" (Molyneux)
- Failure of gender mainstreaming
- Gender equality runs out of steam
What is there a focus on in gender currently?
Now a focus on the girl effect - girls and women are seen as hardworking, efficient and can manage double burdens
What did Molyneux claim?
That gender politics in the 1990s was "Ennui"
What can girls be seen as?
An investment into the future and a magical bullet
What happened in 2011/2012?
- Nike partnered with DFID with a project called Girl Hub
- It was the largest public private partnership
- £15 million was contributed by Nike
- £12.6 million by DFID
- Focus on women achieving great things
How much was contributed by Nike?
How much was contributed by DFID?
How many girls are there in the developing world?
600 million girls in the developing world
What is the Girl Effect?
- A project which claims that girls empowerment is as simple as giving them a cow and go to school
- Does not think about the structural context or relationship with boys
- Reverting back to the WID approach to a degree
Definition of Sex
Sex describes the biological differences between men and women, which are universal and determined at birth
Definition of Gender
Gender refers to the roles and responsibilities of men and women that are created in our families, our societies and our cultures. The concept of gender also includes the expectations held about the characteristics, aptitudes and likely behaviours of both women and men (femininity and masculinity). Gender roles and expectations are learned. They can change over time and they vary within and between cultures. Systems of social differentiation such as political status, class, ethnicity, physical and mental disability, age and more, modify gender roles. The concept of gender is vital because, applied to social analysis, it reveals how women’s subordination (or men’s domination) is socially constructed. As such, the subordination can be changed or ended. It is not biologically predetermined nor is it fixed forever.
Definition of sex-disaggregated data
Data that is collected and presented separately on men and women
Definition of gender analysis
The collection and analysis of sex-disaggregated information. Men and women both perform different roles. This leads to women and men having different experience, knowledge, talents and needs. Gender analysis explores these differences so policies, programmes and projects can identify and meet the different needs of men and women. Gender analysis also facilitates the strategic use of distinct knowledge and skills possessed by women and men.
Definition of Gender Equality
Gender equality is when women and men have equal conditions for realizing their full human rights and for contributing to, and benefiting from, economic, social, cultural and political development. Gender equality is therefore the equal valuing by society of the similarities and the differences of men and women, and the roles they play. It is based on women and men being full partners in their home, their community and their society.
Definition of Gender Equity
Gender Equity is the process of being fair to men and women. To ensure fairness, measures must often be put in place to compensate for the historical and social disadvantages that prevent women and men from operating on a level playing field. Equity is a means. Equality is the result.
Definition of Empowerment
Empowerment is about people -both women and men- taking control over their lives: setting their own agendas, gaining skills, building self-confidence, solving problems and developing self-reliance. No one can empower another: only the individual can empower herself or himself to make choices or to speak out. However, institutions including international cooperation agencies can support processes that can nurture self-empowerment of individuals or groups.
Definition of Gender Division of Labour
Gender Division of Labour is the result of how each society divides work among men and among women according to what is considered suitable or appropriate to each gender.
Definition of Women in Development (WID)
Women in Development (WID) The WID approach aims to integrate women into the existing development process by targeting them, often in women-specific activities. Women are usually passive recipients in WID projects, which often emphasize making women more efficient producers and increasing their income. Although many WID projects have improved health, income or resources in the short term, because they did not transform unequal relationships, a significant number were not sustainable. A common shortcoming of WID projects is that they do not consider women’s multiple roles or that they miscalculate the elasticity of women’s time and labour. An other, is that such projects tend to by blind to men’s roles and responsibilities in women’s (dis)empowerment.
What is the biggest difference between WID and GAD?
The biggest difference between WID and GAD is that WID projects traditionally were not grounded in a comprehensive gender analysis. The GAD approach is gender-analysis driven.
Definition of Gender and Development (GAD)
Gender and Development (GAD) The GAD approach focuses on intervening to address unequal gender relations which prevent inequitable development and which often lock women out of full participation. GAD seeks to have both women and men participate, make decisions and share benefits. This approach often aims at meeting practical needs as well as promoting strategic interests. A successful GAD approach requires sustained long-term commitment.
Definition of Practical Gender Needs
Refers to what women (or men) perceive as immediate necessities such as water, shelter and food
Definition of Strategic Gender Interests
Interventions addressing strategic gender interests focus on fundamental issues related to women’s (or, less often, men’s) subordination and gender inequities. Strategic gender interests are long-term, usually not material, and are often related to structural changes in society regarding women’s status and equity. They include legislation for equal rights, reproductive choice, and increased participation in decision-making. The notion of “strategic gender needs”, first coined in 1985 by Maxine Molyneux, helped develop gender planning and policy development tools, such as the Moser Framework, which are currently being used by development institutions around the world.
Definition of gender mainstreaming
Gender-mainstreaming is a process rather than a goal. Efforts to integrate gender into existing institutions of the mainstream have little value for their own sake. We mainstream gender concerns to achieve gender equality and improve the relevance of development agendas. Such an approach shows that the costs of women’s marginalization and gender inequalities are born by all. UN ECOSOC describes gender mainstreaming as “the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in all areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality”. (ECOSOC Agreed Conclusions 1997/2)
Definition of Gender responsive objectives
Gender responsive objectives are programmes and project objectives that are non-discriminatory, equally benefit to women and men and aim at correcting gender imbalances
Definition of Literacy Gender Parity Index (GPI)
Literacy Gender Parity Index (GPI) is the ratio of the female to male adult literacy rates which measures progress towards gender equity in literacy and the level of learning opportunities available for women in relation to those available to men. It serves also as a significant indicator of the empowerment of women in society.