U.S. History

  1. Homestead Act
    offered 160 acres of free land to any citizen, 600,000 famileis took offer
  2. Development of steel
    Henry Bessemer developed Bessemer Process to easily and rapidly make steel, such as for construction of bridges and skyscrapers
  3. Railroads
    • Central Pacific hired Chinese, Union Pacific hired Irish & Civil War veterans
    • 2,000 killed and 20,000 injured
  4. Pullman, Illinois
    George Pullman built a factory for making sleeper cars in Chicago, Illinois in 1880
  5. Social Darwinism
    Charles Darwin (natural selection), Herbert Spencer (evolution of human), William Sumner (success/failure in business)
  6. Business consolidation
    Merger (buys off another) Monopoly (complete control of wages, production prices) Holding Company (does nothing but buy stock) and Trust (stock over a group of trustees who run separate companies as one)
  7. Robber Barons
    multimillionaires industrialists who achieved their wealth through "questionable means"
  8. Captains of Industry
    charitable contribution of their wealth
  9. Sherman Antitrust Act
    1890, illegal to form a trust between states and countries interfering with free trade.
  10. Populism
    1892 Nebraska proposed reforms to increase money, popular vote, and eight hour workday (farmers and laborers)
  11. Election of 1896
    William Mckinley (Republican) - Gold Standard vs. William Jennings Bryan (dEmocrat) - Bimetallism and "cross of Gold" speech
  12. Early labor unions and leaders
    NLU, CNLU, AFL (Samuel Gompers), ARU (Eugene Debs), IWW (William "Big Bill" Haywood)
  13. Early strikes and results/effect
    Great strike of 1877 (Railroad), Haymarket Affair (bomb thrown, public hate), Homestead Strike (Pinkertons/scabs/Pensylvania National Guard), Pullman Company Strike (President Cleveland sent federal troops)
  14. Mary Harris Jones
    "Mother" ones, UMW (United Mine of Workers), march of 80 children with injuries to President Roosevelt, influenced child labor laws
  15. Limiting power of unions
    Yellow Dog Contract, fired employers to swear not to join a union
  16. ILGWU
    International Ladies Garment WOrkers Union, by 16 year old Pauline Newman, who supported the "Uprising of 20,000"
  17. Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
    146 women burned in a sweatshop
  18. Working conditions
    12 hours or more, 6 or 7 days, children/women in sweatshop (27 cents) , and 675 workers died every week
Card Set
U.S. History