#3 A&P Final
how much uric acid is excreted in the urine each day?
How much potassium is excreted in the urine each day?
how much bicarbonate is excreted in the urine each day?
how much sodium is excreted in the urine each day?
how much chlorine is excreted in the urine each day?
how much protein is excreted in the urine each day?
what are the four major buffering systems in the body?
proteins, hemoglobin, bicarbonate, and phosphate
body fluids constitute how much of body mass?
How much body fluid is in cells (intracellular fluid)?
How much of extracellular fluid is interstitial fluid?
How much of the extracellular fluid is plasma?
What is interstitial fluid?
Part of the extracellular fluid (about 80% of it). It consists of fluid between cell tissues. It also includes lymph, CSF, etc.
What are the two most abundant ions in the extracellular fluid?
sodium and chloride
what are the two most abundant ions in the intracellular fluid?
potassium and the most abundant anions are proteins and phosphates
what is the second most abundant anion in the extracellular fluid?
in body fluids calcium is mainly a ________ cation
what is the second most common intracellular cation?
angiotensin II and aldosterone promote urinary ______ of sodium and chlorine
angiotensin II and aldosterone promote urinary reabsorption of sodium and chlorine
ANP promotes urinary _______ of sodium and chlorine
ANP promotes urinary secretion of sodium and chlorine
What stimulates ADH release?
increased blood osmolarity and decreased blood volume
What effects does angiotensin II have?
1. ADH secretion
2. aldosterone secretion
3. arteriolar vasoconstriction
4. tubular sodium and chlorine reabsorption
what effects does ANP have?
1. increased GFR
2. Decreased sodium reabsorption
3. inhibits release of renin
4. inhibits release of aldosterone
What effects does aldosterone have?
1. increased sodium, chloride, and water reabsorption (by acting on principal cells and by increasing sodium permeability in the collecting ducts)
2. secretion of potassium into tubular lumen
3. stimulates secretion of protons in intercalated cells
what are the functions of electrolytes in the body?
1. control osmosis of water between compartments
2. help maintain the acid-base balance required for normal cellular activities
3. they carry electrical current
what is respiratory acidosis/alkalosis?
these disorders result from changes in the partial pressure of CO2 in the systemic arterial blood.
what is metabolic acidosis/alkalosis?
they are disorders resulting from changes in HCO3- concentration
each lobe of the testis contains 1-4 ______
how many lobules are in the testes?
#3 A&P Final
#3 A&P Final