Bio Exam 4

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  1. Population: Density = ________
    chart?chf=bg,s,00000000&cht=tx&chl=%5Cfrac%7Borganisms%7D%7Barea%7D&chs=156x66
  2. Distribution of population:
    • Clumped: Plants near water source
    • Uniform: Plants equally spread out
    • Random
  3. Density Independent Inhibition:
    External factors cause death

    • Is weather caused
    • High insects during summer months
  4. Density Dependent Inhibition:
    Caused by resources being consumed; population levels too high

    Logistic growth: graph that shows steady increase followed by flattened line (carrying capacity) which may or may not then lead to a drop
  5. Evidence for Evolution:
    • Fossil records
    • Comparative anatomy - homologous structures
    • Comparative embryology - similarity in embryos between species
    • Molecular biology
    • Biogeography - similarity of species
  6. Natural Selection:
    • Natural process
    • Requires 100,000 yrs to occur

    • Wolf-like:
    • ↳Wolf
    • ↳Coyote
    • ↳Fox
    • ↳Dog
  7. Artificial Selection:
    • Humans serve as the environment
    • Requires 1,000 yrs to occur

    • Examples:
    • Dog breeds
    • Cat breeds
    • Cattle breeds
    • Plants
  8. Types of genetic drift:
    • Bottleneck Effect
    • Founder Effect
  9. Bottleneck effect
    hunters kill genetic diversity
  10. Founder effect
    a few leave population and start new population
  11. Gene flow
    Isolated population; no migration
  12. Microevolution
    Is the change in allele frequencies that occurs over time within a population.
  13. Microevolution is due to four different processes:
    Mutation, selection (natural and artificial), gene flow, and genetic drift.
  14. Types of natural selection:
    • Stabilizing
    • Directional
    • Disruptive
  15. Stabilizing natural selection
    favors intermediates (the average)
  16. Directional natural selection
    Favors one extreme (light vs dark)

    Most common
  17. Disruptive natural selection
    favors two extremes

    diversifying
  18. Peppered Moth
    • Smog from industrial revolution caused directional selection
    • dark survived, light were killed
  19. Hardy-Weinberg Law
    A principle stating that the genetic variation in a population will remain constant from one generation to the next in the absence of disturbing factors. When mating is random in a large population with no disruptive circumstances, the law predicts that both genotype and allele frequencies will remain constant because they are in equilibrium.
  20. Hardy-Weinberg Law assumes:
    • Large population
    • No natural selection
    • No mutation
    • Random mating
    • No gene flow
    • No genetic drift
  21. Hardy-Weinberg equation:
    • chart?chf=bg,s,00000000&cht=tx&chl=p%5E2%2B2pq%2Bq%5E2%3D1&chs=258x36
    • p+q=1

    • P: Dominate gene
    • q: Recessive gene
  22. Reproduction Barrier - Pre-zygotic:
    • Temporal - time
    • Habitat
    • Mechanical - plants pollinated by birds
    • Behavioral - mating rituals
    • Gametic - sex cells incompatible (eggs/sperm)
  23. Reproductive Barriers - Post-zygotic:
    • Hybrid sterility
    • Hybrid inviability - aborts
    • Hybrid breakdown - f1 ok, f2 breaks down (sterile)
  24. Hybrid animals:
    • Mule - sterile
    • Liger - female not sterile
    • Leopon
    • Cama - llama + camel
    • Zorse
    • Wholphin
  25. Types of Speciation:
    • Allopatril - due to geography
    • Sympatril - due to complete nondisjunction (polyploid)
    • Adaptive radiation - traveling
  26. Allopatril speciation
    due to geography
  27. Sympatril speciation
    due to complete nondisjunction (polyploid)
  28. Adaptive radiation
    • Species travel from different locations and turns into new species
    • Birds w/ correct adaptations survive
  29. Polypliody
    Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes. Most species whose cells have nuclei (Eukaryotes) are diploid, meaning they have two sets of chromosomes—one set inherited from each parent.
  30. Gradualist Theory of Evolution
    Changes occur slowly
  31. Punctuated Theory of Evolution
    Changes occur quickly
  32. Properties of a biological community:
    • Species diversity
    • Type of vegetation
    • Stability - how fast does it recover from disaster
    • Trophic structures - feeding levels
  33. Trophic Structure:
  34. Quaternary Consumer (hawk)
    •             ⇑⇑⇑⇑⇑
    • Tertiary Consumer (snakes)
    •             ⇑⇑⇑⇑⇑
    • Secondary Consumer (frogs)
    •             ⇑⇑⇑⇑⇑
    • Primary Consumer (insects)
    •             ⇑⇑⇑⇑⇑
    •      Producer (plants)
  35. Niche
    The specific area where an organism inhabits.
  36. Niche - Competitive Exclusion
    + Examples
    • No 2 species can occupy the same niche
    •  Examples;
    • Paramecia
    • Dingo vs. Thylacine
    • Homo Neaderthalensis vs. Homo Sapiens
  37. Ecological Relationships:
    • Parasitism
    • Commensalism
    • Mutualism
  38. Parasitism
    One benefits; Other is harmed

    • Examples:
    • Leeches
    • Tapeworm
    • Plasmodium (malaria)
    • Ticks
  39. Commensalism
    One benefits; other is unaffected

    • Examples:
    • Shark/Remora
  40. Mutualism
    Both benefit

    • Examples:
    • Ant/Acacia
    • Flower/Bird
  41. Keystone Predator
    Maintains ecosystem

    • Examples:
    • Starfish
    • w/ starfish 16 species of shell fish w/o 1 species
    • Wolf
    • regulates Elk population in Yellowstone park w/o wolf little vegetation left
  42. Batesian Mimicry
    Something harmless looks like something harmful

    Moth looks like wasp
  43. Mullerian Mimicry
    Two harmful things look like each other

    Bee looks like wasp
  44. Object mimicry
    Organism looks like object
  45. Types of Camouflage:
    • Background shading
    • Aposomatic Bright Coloration - colors
  46. Primary succession
    • Bare rock  
    •     ⇓
    • Mosses
    •     ⇓
    • Bushes
    •     ⇓
    • Trees
  47. Secondary Sucession
    • Disturbance (fire)
    •     ⇓
    • Crab grass
    •     ⇓
    • Bushes
    •     ⇓
    • Trees
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Bio Exam 4
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