CLAS 280 Final Identification

  1. Jupiter/Jove
  2. Juno
  3. Minerva (Pallas)
  4. Apollo
  5. Diana/Iana
  6. Mercury
  7. Ceres
  8. Neptune
  9. Mars
  10. Bacchus
  11. Venus
  12. Vulcan
  13. Deucalion and Pyrrha:
    The first king and queen of northern Greece, born in the bronze race of man (a very corrupt age), were tasked with repopulating the earth, threw rocks behind their shoulders which became humans (D = boys, P = girls ← LMAO)
  14. Narcissus
    • Vainest mofo alive, the son of nymphs, a nymph Echo is helplessly in love with him
    • Narcissus isn’t interested in being with anyone (male or female) until one day he happens to catch his reflection in a pool of water and falls in love with himself (unrequited obviously) → reference painting by Caravaggio
    • Falls in love so hard that he dies and turns into a flower (white petals, yellow heart)
    •        Where we get the name for the flower
  15. Arachne
    Mortal woman who challenged Athena/Minerva (goddess of wisdom and crafts) at weaving and was then transformed into a spider

    Fatal flaw: hubris (excessive pride)
  16. Orpheus
    • The son of Apollo who had the most charming voice, lived in Thrace
    • Attempted to rescue his wife from the Underworld (his wife was Eurydice) after she died after being bitten by a snake
    • He turned around to look at her (which he wasn’t supposed to do) and Eurydice disappears
    • He is torn to pieces by Maenads (followers of Dionysus)
  17. Eurydice
    • Wife to Orpheus, was pursued by his brother (Aristaeus) and in her fleeing, was bitten by the snake then died
    • Orpheus swore he would never love again and was ripped apart by jealous women (Maenads)
  18. Philomela
    • Sister of Procne (married to Tereus of Thrace)... Tereus sent by his wife to pick up Philomela so that they could see each other after five years apart
    • He sees her, immediately rapes her and then cuts out her tongue and leaves her stranded so she can tell no one
    • Gets back at Tereus by helping her sister kill Tereus’ son and feeds son to him
    • Philomela sends a tapestry (that shows what happened to her) to her sister Procne, and they are reunited and take revenge on Tereus (by killing his baby son and feeding it to him
  19. Iphis
    • Daughter of Telethusa and Ligdus… although Telethusa convinces her husband that Iphis is a boy because he absolutely didn’t want a daughter
    • At the age of 13, an arranged marriage occurs and she falls in love hard with her future bride, prays to the gods for her to be a boy so they can actually marry
    • Is transformed into a young man right on time for the wedding day
    • Bride is best friend she was raised with, Ianthe
  20. Pythagoras
    • He shows up in Book 15 of Ovid: Book 15 is a Long speech by Pythagoras as a Philosopher, he is a pre-Socratic philosopher.
    • He is opposed to animal sacrifice and he articulates the theory of vegetarianism which is radical in the context of the mythical system.
    • Ovid is interested in Pythagoras’ doctrine of metempsychosis, or the transmigration of souls.
  21. Aeneas
    Son of Anchises and Aphrodite. Leaves Troy after the Trojan War and ends up in the Italian countryside outside of Rome.
  22. Romulus
    Founder of RomeTwin brother of Remus who were nursed by wolves.Mars turns him into a god
  23. Galatea
    • Was brought to life then cursed to bear three generations of dysfunctional beings
    • Also the name of the nymph who Polyphemus fell in love with; she was in love with someone named Acis, who was crushed by Polyphemus, she turns Acis into a river god
  24. Katabasis
    A trip to the Underworld and back. e.g. Aeneas, Odysseus, Mulholland Drive, Orpheus
  25. Stoicism
    • For the Stoics,  the universe is a continuum; there are no gaps, and everything is a part of one body. We as human beings are embedded in this, and boundaries are not real.
    • All of the arts are proof of altering the material universe.
    • Seen as a “back to nature” movementStoics recognize that our thoughts dictate our lives, not the world around us. We can overcome destructive emotions by changing the way that we think.
    • Stoicism also has the component that everything is ordained by fate, gods and pre-determination of our lives
  26. Ekpyrosis
    • Out of earth, air, fire, and water, the most important element is fire, which is divine.
    • In becoming a sage, the fire in you becomes a great divine fire in the Universe.
    • Ekpyrosis is the combustion of the individual. If you can strengthen connections with the divine, and merge into the true world, then you become divine.
  27. Myth of Er
    • A legend that concludes Plato's Republic
    • Includes an account of the cosmos and the afterlife that greatly influenced religious, philosophical, and scientific thought for many centuries.
    • Er is a man who died in battle but wakes up before cremation, tells people how horrible the underworld is for the unjust (punishments, etc)
  28. Transmigration of Souls (metempsychosis)
    • Pythagoras’ idea through Ovid book 15.
    • When an animal or being dies, the soul does not die with the body, rather, it goes into some other body. The body it goes into might not be in the same ontological order.
    • Connects to Aeneid - Aeneas saw a bunch of people in the Underworld waiting to be reborn as anything they chose
  29. Cumaean Sibyl
    • Sibyl is a word akin to meaning prophetess
    • In the Aeneid, she guides Aeneas on his journey to the underworld and then through the underworld so that he can be reunited with his father, Anchises (basically the bridge between the living and the dead)
    • Also mentioned in the Ovid:Bk XIV:101-153 Aeneas and the Sybil of Cumae
  30. Charon
    Boatsman of Hades who guards entrance to underworld and decides who goes in or not (ex. They need to have gone through the funeral rites)
  31. Lake Avernus
    • Lake on the way to the Underworld where no birds could fly over.
    • “Facilis decsensus averno” = the descent into hell is easy
    • With “averno” referring to both Lake Avernus and Hell/the Underworld
  32. Anchises
    Prince of Troy. Lover of Aphrodite and father of Aeneas.
  33. Golden Bough
    • Talisman that allows movement between the living and the dead; only those worthy can use it, ex. Aeneas
    • Seen in the painting by Poussin: “Landscape with the Nymph Egeria and Numa Pompilius”
  34. Felices Animae
    • Translated from latin is “happy souls”
    • Aeneas calls those who live in the groves of blessedness “felices animae”; this phrase is used in an earlier book when he encountered another group of people that survived and created a replica of Troy
    • One’s ritual purity or ethical purity is what determines if you enter the ranks of those who are permanently ensconced in the land of the felices animae: you made other people remember you.
  35. Cerberus
    Three-headed guard dog of the Underworld; represents the gaping hole that absorbs
  36. Umbrae
    • Latin word for shadow
    • Souls are shadows of ourselves, traces of the individuals, but souls are also insubstantial
  37. Club Silencio
    • In David Lynch’s film Mulholland Drive, in which you’re told the band is not real (no hay la banda), everything is a recording yet you still believe whoever is on stage is performing live
    • The point was that myth may all be an illusion - we don’t know - but whether it’s true or not, it can deeply affect us
  38. Troy VII
    • Depending on how the scholars count, there should be 13 versions of Troy.
    • Troy VII corresponds archaeologically with the traditional state for the destruction of Troy by the Greek forces in 1184 BCE. They think of this legend of Troy as somehow overlapping with a history of Troy.
    • The Destruction of Troy is seen as the beginning of human history: the point where human history diverges from divine history.
  39. Paris
    • Prince of Troy. Son of Priam and Hecuba
    • Brother of Hector
    • Paris judges between Hera, Aphrodite and Athena who is the most beautiful
    • In exchange for Aphrodite winning, she offers him Helen of Sparta
    • Starts the Trojan War.
  40. Priam
    King of Troy, father of Hector
  41. Hekuba
    Wife of Priam, King of Troy. Mother of Hector and Paris
  42. Andromache
    Wife of Hector, symbol of constant mourning/ lamentation
  43. Laomedon
    • Father of Priam, promised to pay Apollo + Poseidon for building the walls of Troy, then negs on his deal and doesn’t pay
    • That myth can also be seen with Herakles building the wall and subsequently sacking Troy
  44. Labyrinth
    • Troy is connected with the Labyrinth; going to Troy is like entering the labyrinth
    • Place where you encounter a threat to your mortality
    • Both are like a rites of passage because you go through a number of “trials” and if you come out of the maze/war alive, then you have risen in status
    • Constructed by Daedalus, home of the Minotaur → every year a tribute must be sent from the city as a sacrifice to the Minotaur → Theseus ends this
  45. mythos
    authoritative utterance (comes from greek word myowhich means to see with eyes closed, to see in the dark, to see beyond the here and now; having specialized knowledge without seeing it
  46. alēthēs
  47. not forgetting; unconcealed; truth
    • translated as truth - truth in the sense of what is worth remembering; not truth in the sense of what is scientifically viable
    • differentiate it with facts
  48. timai
    privileges/honor/turf, the stuff that you are responsible for, what is yours; keeping others off of it. Zeus obsessed with giving everyone a place so Typhoeus is an example of someone that didn’t have a place
  49. aetion
    the story is designed to explain an institution or feature of the contemporary world
  50. virilocal exogamy
    patrilocal exogamy (the system which dictates that married couples should live near or with the parents of the husband)
  51. Laos
    common people, heroes are supposed to protect and care for laos (ex. Odysseus fails in bringing his crew home alive)
  52. kleos
    • to be talked about (praise you get for doing good things; renown) (Celebration) 
    • Helen says someday people will talk about us
    • someday people will give us kleos
    • we will be the figures of song, poetry → celebrated in that respect
  53. goos
    Lamentation done without or with less ritual emphasis; often by women. Examples are practically everytime spontaneous crying happens, could also be mourning over loss (Ex. Menelaos won the war but he lost his brother, underlying goos in the kleos)
  54. mētis
    the titan goddess that Zeus swallowed and in swallowing became in gendered with Athena, which got rid ofproblem of filial succession - also means “cunning intelligence”
  55. nostos
    To return home via sea for Kleos or something that has Kleos value (homecoming)
  56. isonomia
    equality before the law
  57. sophos
  58. wisdom, cunning, witchcraft, alchemy, debate
  59. deinos
  60. great deeds; awesome/terrible
Card Set
CLAS 280 Final Identification