Genetic material (DNA) is not enclosed in a specific nuclear membrane.
Bacterial cells are called Prokaryotes; prokaryotes included bacteria and archaea.
Shape - Bacillus, Coccus, spiral
Arrangement - pairs, chains, cluster; such formation are usually characteristic of a particular genes or species of bacteria.
Enclosed in cell walls that are largely composed of carbohydrate and protein complex called peptidoglycan.
Bacteria generally reproduce by dividing into two equal cells; this process is called binary fission.
For nutrition, most bacteria use organic chemicals, which in nature can be derived form either dead or living organisms.
Some bacteria can manufacture their own food by photosynthesis, and some can drives nutrition from inorganic substances.
Many bacterium can "swim" by using moving appendages called flagella
Archaea consist of prokaryotic cells
If they have cell walls, the walls lack peptidoglycan
Found extreme environments such as hot springs and dead sea
Archaea are not known to cause disease in humans
Three types of Archaea which found extreme environments.
Methenogens - produce methane as a waste products form respiration
Extreme halophiles - (halo - salt, philes - loving) live in extreme salty environments such as the great salt lake and dead sea
Extreme thermohiles - (Thermo -heat) live in hot sulfurous water, such as hot springs at Yellowstone National Park
Distinct nucleus containing the cell's genetic material (DNA), surrounded by a special enveloped called nuclear
Kingdom fungi may be unicellular or multicellular
Large multicellular fungi - mushroom
Fungi cannot carry out photosynthesis
True fungi have cell walls composed primarily of a substance called chitin
Unicellular form of fungi - yeast are oval microorganisms that are larger than bacteria
Most typical fungi - mold
Mold forms visible masses called mycelia, which are composed of long filaments (hyphae) that branch and intertwine
Reproduce sexually or asexually
They obtain nourishment by absorbing solutions of organic materials form their environments - soil, seawater, freshwater, animal or plant host
Organisms called slime molds have characteristic of both fungi and amoebae
Unicellular eukaryotic microbes
Protozoa move by Pseudopods, flagella, cilia
Amoebae move by using extensions of their cytoplasm calls Pseudopods
Other protozoa have flagella or numerous shorter appendages for locomotion cilia
Protozoa have a variety of shapes and live either as free entities or as parasites (organism that derives nutrients form living host) that absorb or ingest organic compounds
Some protozoa, such as Euglena are photosynthetic. they use light as a source of energy and carbon dioxide as their chief source of carbon to produce sugars
Reproduce sexually or asexually
Photosynthetic eukaryotes with a wide variety of shapes and both sexual and asexual reproductive forms
Cell walls of many algae are composed of carbohydrate called cellulose
Photosynthesizer, algae need light, water, and carbon dioxide or food production and growth, but they do not generally require organic components from environments
As a result of photosynthesis, algae produce oxygen and carbohydrate that are then utilized by other organisms including animals
Algae play an important role in the balance of nature
Can be seen only with an electron microscope and they are acellular (not cellular)
Virus particles contains a core made of only one type of nucleic acid ether DNA or RNA
Virus core is surrounded by a protein coat, which is sometimes encapsulated by a lipid membrane called an envelope
Virus can reproduce only by using cellar machinery of other organisms
Viruses are considered to be living only when they multiply within host cells they infect, however, viruses are parasites of other form of life. Viruses are not considered to be living because they are inert outside living host.
Multicellular Animal Parasites
Not strictly microorganisms
Animal parasites are eukaryotes
The two major groups of parasitic worms are the flatworms and roundworms collectively called helminths
During same stages of their life cycle, helminths are microscopic in size
Some forms of life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter
Hypothesizing that living cells arise only from preexisting living cells
Pasteur demonstrated the microorganisms are present in the air and can contaminate sterile solutions, but the air itself does not create microbes
Pasteur demonstrated that microbes are responsible for food spoilage, leading researchers tot he connection between microbes and disease
His experiment and observation provided that basis of aseptic techniques, which are used to prevent microbial contamination
procedures that prevent contamination by unwanted microorganisms, which are now the standard practice in laboratory and many medical proceures
the first proof that bacteria actually cause disease came form Robert Koch
Koch discovered the cause of Anthrax, a disease that was destroying cattle and sheep in Europe
Koch discovered rod shaped bacteria now known as Baillus antrasis in blood of cattle died of antrax. He cultured the bacteria on nutrients and then injected samples of the culture into healthy animal. when these animal became sick and died, Koch isolated the batterer in their blood and compared them with the originally isolated bacteria. He found that the two set of blood cultures contained the same bacteria
Koch's Postulates, a sequence of experimental steps for directly relating a specific microbe to a specific disease