151 Final

  1. Joints of the foot
    • Hinge: Phalanges
    • Ellipsoid: Metatarsals
    • Gliding: Tarsals
  2. Function of the Arch
    • Supination in talar region
    • Pronation of forefoot
    • Longitudinal and Transverse arches construct a "dome shape"
    • Weight Bearing "squashes" the dome
    • Stretched ligaments, muscle and fascia spring the dome back into shape.
  3. Heel strike Pros and Cons
    • Pros: Stretches calf muscles. Less stress on calf muscles and Achilles tendon.
    • Cons: Contributes to over-striding, slower running and poorer form
  4. Midfoot-strike Pros and Cons
    • Pros: Better shock absorption due to a bent-leg. Contributes to better form and faster running. Less stress on calf muscles, Achilles tendon, IT band
    • CONS: More stress on the calf muscles and Achilles tendon
  5. Toe-Strike
    Pros: Less stress on knees and ankles. Reduced stride. Contributes to better form, and faster running.
  6. What supplies arch support for the foot?
    Plantar ligaments and Plantar aponeurosis or fascia
  7. What foot muscles are located in the 1st plantar layer?
    • Abductor Digiti Minimi
    • Abductor Hallucis
    • Flexor Digitorum Brevis

    Their actions are commonly Abduction and Flexion
  8. What foot muscles are located on the 2nd plantar layer?
    • 4 lumbricals
    • Quadratus Plantae

    Actions of these muscles include: Flexion, Longitudinal Arch Support
  9. WHat foot muscles are located on the 3rd plantar layer?
    • Flexor Digiti Minimi
    • Adductor Hallucis (Transversus and Obliquus)
    • Flexor Hallicus Brevis

    Actions are: Flexion, Adduction, support of transverse Anterior Arch
  10. What foot muscles are located on the 4th plantar layer?
    • Plantar Interossei
    • Action is Adduction
  11. What bones make up the ankle?
    • Tibia, Fibula and Talus for the hinge joint.
    • Talus and calcaneus for the saddle joint
  12. What type of joint is the ANkle?
    • Hinge joint. It dorsi flexes and plantar flexes
    • Saddle joint. It does eversion (pronation) and inversion (supination)
  13. What are the muscle compartments of the ankle and their actions?
    • Lateral Compartment: Everters contributing to pronation
    • Posterior Compartment: Superficial plantar flexors
    • Posterior Compartment Deep: Invertors contributing to supination
    • Anterior Compartment: Dorsi Flexors
  14. What muscles lie in the Lateral compartment of the ankle?
    • Peroneus Longus:
    • O- Upper Lateral Fibula.
    • I- #1 Metatarsal and Cuneiform from under the foot for longus.
    • A- Eversion, Plantar Flexion
    • Peroneus Brevis:
    • O- Lower lateral Fibula
    • I- #5 metatarsal base
    • A- Eversion and Plantar Flexion
    • Both are pulley muscles with long tendons that wrap around the lateral malleolus and tarsals.
  15. What muscles lie in the Posterior Superficial compartment of the ankle? What are their OIA's?
    • Plantaris:
    • O- Lateral condyle femur
    • I- Calcaneo tuberosity via tendocalcaneo
    • A- Plantar Flexion and weak knee flexion

    • Gastrocnemius:
    • O- Medial and lateral femoral condyles.
    • I- Calcaneo tuberosity via the tendo calcaneo
    • A- Strong plantar flexor and knee flexor
    • Soleus: only muscle of the tendocalcaneo that doesnt cross the knee.
    • O- Soleal or oblique line of tibia
    • I- Calcaneo tuberosity via the tendocalcaneo
    • A- Plantar Flexion
  16. What muscles lie in the Posterior Deep Compartment of the ANkle? Their OIA's?
    • Tibialis Posterior:
    • O- Middle Tibia, Fibula, & interosseous membrane
    • I- Metatarsal base 2-4, base of distal phalanx of #1-5
    • A- Inversion and plantar flexion.
    • Flexor Digitorum Longus: First to act on toes
    • O- Posterior tibia and interosseus membrane
    • I- Distal phalanges 2-5
    • A- Inversion, plantar flexion, toe flexion
    • Flexor Hallucis Longus: Acts on big toe, uses malleolus and calcaneus for pulley
    • O- Fibula & Interosseus membrane
    • I- Distal Phalanx of #1
    • A- Inversion, toe flexion and plantar flexion
  17. Muscles involved in shin splint syndrome?
    • Tibialis Posterior, Extensor Digitorum Longus, Extensor Hallucis Longus
    • Tibialis Posterior is a victim of bowing effect between the tibia and fibula since it covers the intermuscular septum between them.
    • A strong Tib. Pos. protects interosseous membrane from developing ShinSplintSyndrome
  18. What are the muscles of the anterior compartment of the ankle? OIA's?
    • Tibialis Anterior: Lifts medial foot
    • O- Anterior-lateral tibia
    • I- Base of first metatarsal
    • A- Dorsiflexion, inversion
    • Extensor Digitorum Longus: A multi-joint muscle. Palpable tendons in dorsum of foot. LiFts lateral foot + extends toes. 
    • O- Upper anterior fibula and interosseus membrane
    • I- Distal Phalanx 2-5
    • A- Dorsi Flexion (Toe extension, assistor in eversion)

    • Extensor Hallucis Longus: Palpable to big toe. Extends Big toe and dorsi flexes
    • O- Anterior Fibula
    • I- Distal phalanx of big toe
    • A- Dorsi flexion (big toe extension)
  19. How do you train the ankle muscles?
    zBalance evertors and invertors to support ankle and archzStrengthen dorsi flexors to balance the power of the plantar flexors and prevent shin splintszHow do you train these muscles?zProvide resistance to the actions that the muscles naturally perform.
  20. What are the two joint muscles of the thigh?
    • These muscles are efficient for locomotion. Cannot usually stretch enough for a full ROM at both joints at the same time
    • Cannot usually produce enough power to produce complete movement at both joints at the same time. 
    • Rectus Femoris, Gracialis, Sartorius, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, Bicep Femoris
  21. What type of hinge is the knee? Muscles and bones involved?
    • Knee is a Hinge joint, does flexion and extension. Composed of the Femur, tibia and patella.
    • Structurally weak w/o significant musculature, crucial support by ligaments:
    • Medial collateral lig., LCL, ACL, PCL, Medial meniscus, lateral meniscus
  22. What is the Q angle?
    • Aka Quadriceps angle.
    • Angle is between the long axis of the FEMUR and the LINE OF PULL of the PATELLAR TENDON

    The larger the Q angle, the larger RISK OF INJURY
  23. What are the 6 muscles of the Anterior Thigh? OIA's?
    • Tensor Fascia Latae:
    • Sartorius: 2 joint muscle. The longest muscle.

    • Rectus Femoris: Of the Quadricep muscle group. The only 2-joint muscle of them.
    • O- Anterior inferior iliac spine
    • I- Common patellar tendon to tibial tuberosity
    • A- Hip Flexion and knee extension
    • Vastus Medialis:
    • O- Medial lip of linea aspera, media supraconylar ridge
    • I- Common patellar tendon to tibial tuberosity
    • A- Knee extension
    • Vastus Intermedius: Most active of the vastus group
    • O- Lateral lip of linea aspera AND surface of femur 
    • I- Common patellar tendon to tibial tuberosity.
    • A- Knee extension
    • Vastus Lateralis:
    • O- Lateral lip of linea aspera (Woah, posterior!)
    • I- COmmon Patellar tendon to tibial tuberosity
    • A- Knee extension
  24. What are the 3 muscles of the Posterior Thigh?
    • All are 2 joint muscles
    • Semimembranosis:
    • O- Ischial Tuberosity
    • I- Medial condyle of tibia
    • A- Knee flexion and hip extension
    • Semitendonosis: 
    • O- Ischial tuberosity.
    • I- Medial Upper tibial surface
    • A- Hip extension + knee flexion
    • Bicep Femoris: long head crosses hip only. 
    • O- Ischial Tuberosity and lower linea aspera
    • I- Lateral tibial condyle and head of fibula
    • A- Knee flexion and hip extension.
  25. What are the 5 medial thigh muscles? OIA's?
    • They're adductors
    • Pectineus: 1st of medial compartment
    • O- Iliopectineal eminence and crest of pubis.
    • I- Pectineal line of femur
    • A- Hip Flexion and adduction, slight outward rotation
    • Adductor Brevis: Most superior and shortest.
    • O- Inferior ramus of pubis.
    • I- Spiral line and superior linea aspera.
    • A- Adduction with some external rotation and flexion at the hip
    • Adductor Longus: forms a "femoral triangle" with the inguinal lig. and sartorius. Vulnerable in dancers and gymnasts in dynamic splits
    • O- Pubic Crest.
    • I- Middle third of linea aspera
    • A- Hip adduction and flexion
    • Adductor Magnus: Largest muscle of medial thigh.
    • O-Inferior ramus of pubis.
    • I- Extensive insertion along the posterior femur
    • A- Strong adduction, weak flexion.
    • Gracialis: 
    • O- Pubic Crest
    • I- Upper, medial tibial surface.
    • A- Hip adduction.
  26. What are the tripod Muscles?
    Sartorius (ilium), Gracialis (Pubis), Semitendonosus (Ischium)

    They adjust the weight line from the hip to the medial knee.
  27. OIA of Popliteus?
    • Unlocks knee. Acts as a stabilizer against forward dislocation when squatting.
    • O- Lateral conyle of femur
    • I- Upper posterior tibia
    • A- Knee flexion
  28. What are the posterior lumbar muscles of the spine? OIA's?
    • Quadratus Lumborum: Dominant when heel strikes during locomotion. Stabilizes spine, ribcage and pelvis for posture + respiration
    • O- Sacrum, Iliac Crest
    • I- L1-4 transverse process and rib #22
    • A- Spine erection/lumbar extension mutual neutralization, right left flexion, stabilizer for respiration and heel strike.
    • Erector spinae: AKA "Anti-Gravity muscle". Important for erect posture, neutralizing both sides of body. Large mass, origin muscle only due to splitting into 3 different muscles
    • O-All lumbar lamina, ridge of iliac crest, posterior sacrum
    • I- Splits into three muscles; iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis.
    • A- of all three- "bobbing reflex muscles" erects head when falling asleep upright. 
    • Iliocostalis: Most lateral of the spinae, named for costal region.
    • I- Rib angles and C2-3, doesnt cross to skull
  29. What are the posterior thoracic/cervical intermediate muscles of the spine? OIA's?
    Longissimus: Intermediate, between iliocostalis and spinalis, named for its length, crosses to skullI- ribs and mastoid process of skullSpinalis: Most medial, named for being at spine, crosses skull.I- Lamina and nucleal line of skull
  30. What are the posterior cervical intermediate muscles of the spine? OIA's?
    • Splenius cervicis:
    • O- T4-6 spinous process.
    • I- C1-3 transverse process
    • A- Head/cervical extension, rotation, and side bending/flexion
    • Splenius capitis:
    • O- C7, T1-4 spinous process.
    • I- Mastoid Process occipital bone.
    • A- Head/Cervical extension, rotation, and side bending/flexion
  31. What are the posterior deep rotator muscles of the spine? OIAs?
    • All rotate + extend the vertebral column, spanning 1-4 vertebrae, occupying spinous + transverse prcoess
    • Multifidus:
    • O- Transverse processes
    • I- Spinous processes= 2-4 vertebra span, lamina
    • A- Rotation and extension
    • Rotatores:
    • O- Transverse processes
    • I- Spinous process base 1-2 vertebra span.
    • A- Rotation and extension
    • Interspinalis:
    • O- SPinous processes
    • I- Spinous processes- 1 vertebra span
    • A- extension
    • INtertransversus:
    • O- Transverse processes
    • I- Transverse processes
    • A- Rotation and extension, stabilize and side bend
    • Levatores:
    • O- Transverse processes T1-12
    • I- Rib below
    • A- Rotation and extension
  32. What are the anterior Cervical muscles of the spine?
    • Scaleni:
    • Anterior, Posterior and Medial scalenes support weight of head
    • O- Cervical Transverse Processes
    • I- Upper 2 ribs
    • A- Flexion and Lateral Flexion
    • Sternocleidomastoid: 2 heads, very active in raising the head from a supine position with scalenes
    • O- Sternum, clavicle
    • I- Mastoid Process
    • A- Cervical flexion as mutual neutralizers, lateral flexion, rotation
    • Platysma
  33. What are the anterior ribs and thoracic spine muscles?
    • Respiratory muscles:
    • Diaphragm
    • Serratus Posterior Superior
    • Serratus Posterior inferior
    • Levatores
    • Internal Intercostalis
    • External Intercostalis
    • Subclavius
  34. What are the anterior abdonminal/lumbar muscles of the spine?
    • The abdonminals for the "Scottish Plaid" Vertical lines are rectus abdominus, horizontal lines are transversus abdominis.
    • Diagonal lines are internal and external obliquus
    • Rectus abdominis: Most superficial of 4 abdominals, isometric
    • O- Pubic crest and tubercle.
    • I- Xiphoid process & costal cartilage of ribs 5-7
    • A- Flexion, compression, side bending.
    • External obliquus: Hands in pockets, grab superior ramus of pubis and tilt toward ribs.
    • O- Ribs 5-12
    • I- Anterior iliac crest, pubic crest, aponeurosis
    • A- Flexion with mutual neutralization, rotation to opposite side, side bending, compression.
    • Internal obliquus:
    • Posterolateral
    • O- Inguinal ligament, iliac crest, thoraco lumbar fascia
    • I- Ribs 8-10 aponeurosis, pubic crest, linea alba.
    • A- Flexion with mutual neutralization, rotation to same side, side bending, compression.
    • Transversus abdominis: Horizontal Deep, Broad, no bony movement.
    • Isometric muscle.
    • O- Inguinal ligament, iliac crest, thoraco lumbar fascia, ribs 6-12
    • I- Aponeurosis, pubic crest, linea alba. 
    • A- Abdominal compression
    • Pyramidalis: Missing in 20% of people
    • O- Pubic crest
    • I- Lower linea alba
    • A- Tensor of linea alba, reinforcement of lower rectus sheath, core muscle in ballet and other leaping activities
Card Set
151 Final
Lecture 9-13. Spine, knee, ankle, foot