HMWH Unit 8 Part 2

  1. Tito
    • Josip Broz (aka Tito) was the leader of the Commie resistance movement in Yugoslavia
    • After the war, he wanted to make Yugoslavia an independent commie state
    • Stalin hoped to take control of Yugoslavia, but Tito refused
    • Tito gained support by portraying the struggle as one of Yugoslav national freedom
    • He ruled until his death in 1980
  2. Poland Protest, 1956
    • In response to protests, the Polish Commie Party created a series of reforms and elected Wladysaw Gomulka as secretary
    • Gomulka declared Poland had the right to follow its own socialist path
    • Sacred of Soviet response, the Poles compromised and remained loyal to the Warsaw Pact
  3. Prague Spring, 1968
    • Jan 1968, Alexander Dubcek was elected first secretary of the Commie Party
    • He introduced reforms, which included freedom of speech and press, freedom to travel abroad, and relaxed censorship, also an independent foreign policy and promised gradual democratization
    • Hoped to create "socialism w/ a human face"
    • A short period of euphoria broke out called the "Prague Spring"
    • August 1968, Soviets invaded Czechoslovakia and crushed the reform movement
    • Gustav Husank replaced Dubcek and reestablished old order
  4. de Gaulle's Fifth Republic
    • 1958, de Gaulle drafted a new constitution for the Fifth Republic that greatly enhanced the power of the pres
    • The pres will now have the right to choose the prime minister, dissolve parliament, and supervise both defense and foreign policy
    • He became the first pres of the republic
    • Wanted to return France to a great world power, so he invested heavily in nuclear bombs
    • 1960, France exploded first nuclear bomb
    • French economy grew 5.5% annually, faster than the US, and became a major industrial producer and exporter
    • Problems remained--large govn deficits and rise in cost of living led to unrest
    • Resigned from office in April 1969 and died w/in a year
  5. West German "Economic Miracle"
    • Miracle happened under rule of Konrad Adenauer
    • Ludwig Erhard played a major role in economic revival
    • Unemployment dell from 8% in 1950 to 0.4% in 1965
    • West Germany brought hundreds of thousands of "guest workers" on visas from Italy, Spain, Greece, Turkey, and Yugoslavia
    • 1963, Adenauer resigned after 14 years
    • Ludwig Erhard succeeded him as chancellor and continued his policies
  6. Welfare State
    • A state in which the govn takes responsibility for providing citizens w/ service and a minimal standard of living
    • Was used in Great Britain where in 1946, the govn passed the National Insurance Act and National Health Service Act which provided funds for the unemployed, sick, and aged
    • Ensured medical care for all
  7. European Economic Community (EEC)
    • Aka Common Market
    • 1957, France, West Germany, the Benelux countries, and Italy signed the Rome Treaty which created the EEC
    • Was a free-trade area that made up of the six member nations
    • Six nations would impose no tariffs on each others goods
    • Would be protected by a tariff imposed on goods from the non-EEC nations
    • Encouraged cooperation among the member nations' economies
    • 1960, became an important trading bloc and was the world's largest exporter and purchaser of raw materials
  8. Consumer Society
    • A society that was preoccupied w/ buying goods, not producing them
    • Workers could now buy televisions, washing machines, refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, and stereos
  9. Women's Liberation Movement
    • Late 1960s, women had begun to assert their rights again and feminism became a renewed interest
    • Simone de Beauvior wrote The Second Sex which became important in the movement
    • The book argued that as a result of male-dominated societies, women had been defined mostly by how they were different from men and were treated as second-class citizens
    • Influenced both American and European women's movements
  10. Lenoid Brezhnev
    • Along w/ Alexei Kosygin, he replaced Nikita Khrushchev
    • Emerged as the dominant leader in the 1970s
    • Determined to keep eastern Europe in Commie hands and as uninterested in reform
    • Insisted on the right of the Soviet Union to intervene if communism was threatened in another Commie state (aka the Brezhnev Doctrine)
  11. Detente
    • A relaxation of tension and improved relations between the two superpowers
    • Brezhnev used this
    • The Soviets felt secure and were willing to relax their rigid rule
    • More access to Western lit and pop culture
    • Dissidents were still punished
  12. Perestroika
    • 1980, Mikhail Gorbachev, leader of the Commie Party, preached the need for radical reforms, hence perestroika, or restructuring
    • First meant restructuring economic policy, meaning a market economy more responsive to consumers
    • An attempt to reform economy will not happen unless politics reform
    • 1918, he established a new Soviet parliament w/ elected members, the Congress of People's Deputies
    • Gorbachev decreed non-commie political parties could organize and abolish a constitutional provision saying that the Commie Party had a "leading role" in the state
  13. Glasnost
    • The freedom of the press
    • Is only an instrument of democracy, not democracy itself
    • However, freedom of the press is deceptive, since the owners of newspapers erect strict labor against discussion of issues of vital importance
  14. Solidarity
    • A Polish worker named Lech Walesa organized the national trade union
    • Gained support of the workers and the Roman Catholic church
    • 1980s, Walesa was arrested, but the movement continued
    • 1988, finally Polish regime agreed to free parliamentary elections, the first in Eastern Europe in 40 years
    • New govn was elected, ending 45 years of Commie rule
  15. Organization of American States (OAS)
    • 1948, the states of the Western Hemisphere formed the OAS
    • Emphasized the need for Latin American indepence
    • Passed a resolution calling for an end to military action by one state in the affairs of another
    • Did not end American involvement in Latin America because of Cold War
  16. Fidel Castro
    • 1950s, led a strong opposition movement in Cuba
    • Aimed to overthrow the govn of the dictator Fulgencio Batista
    • His army used guerrilla warfare against Batista's regime and regime collapsed; Havana was seized January 3, 1959
    • Many Cubans who disagreed w/ Castro fled to the US
    • Relations between Cuba and the US quickly deteriorated when Castro began to receive aid from the Soviet Union
    • Oct 1960, US declared a trade embargo prohibiting trade w/ Cuba and Jan 3, 1961 broke all diplomatic relations w/ Cuba
    • April 1961, John F. Kennedy support an attempt to overthrow Castro's govn
    • 1962, Soviets began placing nuclear missiles in Cuba which led to a showdown w/ the US (Cuban Missile Crisis)
    • Cuban Missile Crisis caused Castro to realize the Soviet Union had been unreliable
    • Cuban strategy failed, but Castro's Marxist regime cont (Regime provided free medical services for all citizens, illiteracy was nearly eliminated)
    • Economic weakness forced Castro's regime to depend on Soviet and on selling sugar to Soviet bloc countries
    • 1989, Cuba lost their support, economic conditions have declined, but Castro managed to stay in power
  17. The Great Leap Forward
    • Mao began a radical program in 1958 known as the Great Leap Forward
    • Existing collective farms were combined into vast communes, each containing more than 30,000 peeps who lived and worked cooperatively
    • Mao hoped this would allow China to reach the final of communism
    • "Hard work for a few years, happiness for a thousand"
    • Great Leap Forward was a disaster
    • Bad planning and weather drove food production down
    • At least 16 million starved to death, and, in 1960, govn began breaking up the communes
  18. The Cultural Revolution
    • 1966, Mao launched the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
    • Mao's book, Little Red Book, became a sort of bible for Chinese Commies
    • Red Guards were formed--bands of revolutionaries, mostly students and teenagers, who set out across the nations to eliminate the "Four Olds"- old ideas, old culture, old customs, old habits
    • Many party members, military officers, and professionals were disgusted at the Red Guards and turned against this early phase of the Cultural Revolution
    • Mao got tired of the chaos and reined in the Red Guards
    • More moderate policies were followed, but Mao's doctrines still prevailed
  19. Tiananmen Square
    • It was here when the most dramatic outpouring of criticism of China's Commie Party came in massive demonstrations (in the capital of Beijing)
    • China's leaders were split over how to response to the protestors calling for the aging party leaders to resign
    • Deng believed the protestors were calling an end to Commie rule
    • He ordered tanks and troops into Tiananmen Square to remove protestors
    • Late 1990s, Chinese citizens were demonstrating against official corruption, high rural taxes, and economic and social inequality again
  20. One-Child Policy
    • Mao's successors have followed one of his goals to the present day--population control
    • 1979, the state began advocating a one-child policy
    • Incentives such as educational benefits, child care, and housing were offered to couples who limited their families to one child
    • The UN and other international groups criticized the policy for using intense psychological pressure
Card Set
HMWH Unit 8 Part 2
Tito, Poland Protest 1956, Prague Spring 1968, de Gaulle's Fifth Republic, West German "Economic Miracle", Welfare State, European Economic Community (EEC), Consumer Society, Women's Liberation Movement, Lenoid Brezhnev, Detente, Perestroika, Glasnost, Solidarity, Organization of American State (OAS), Fidel Castro, The Great Leap Forward, The Cultural Revolution, Tiananmen Square, One-Child Policy