Logic Test 3

  1. Terms Without Nouns
    • Must add plural nouns
    • Ex. Some roses are red -> Some roses are red flowers
  2. Nonstandard Verbs
    • Only are and are not are allowed in standard form.
    • Ex. Trespassers will be prosecuted -> All trespassers are people who will be prosecuted
  3. Singular Propositions
    • A proposition that makes an assertion about a specific person, place, thing or time.
    • Ex. The moon is full tonight -> All things identical to the moon are things that are full tonight OR All times identical to tonight are times the moon is full
  4. Spatial adverbs
    • Describe where something happens.
    • Eg. wherever, everywhere, anywhere, somewhere, nowhere, upstairs, and underground
    • Ex. Wherever there is smoke, there is a fire -> All places that have smoke are places that have fire
  5. Temporal Adverbs
    • Describe when something happens
    • Eg. Whenever, never, always, anytime, yesterday, and tomorrow.
    • Ex. She never brings her lunch to school -> No times she goes to school are times she brings her lunch
  6. Unspecified persons
    • Describe an unspecified person or persons.
    • Eg. whoever, anyone, anybody, everyone, no one, and someone
    • Ex. Whoever took my journal is in big trouble -> All people who took my journal are people in big trouble
  7. Unspecified Things
    • Describe an unspecified thing or things
    • Eg. what, whatever, anything, something, and everything
    • Ex. What goes around comes around -> All things that go around are things that come around
  8. Unexpressed Quantifiers
    • Ordinary language statements have implied quantifiers.
    • Ex. Sharks are predators -> All sharks are predators
    • Ex2. Children live next door -> Some children are people who live next door
  9. Nonstandard Quantifiers
    • Some ordinary language statements contain quantifiers that are non standard because they are not "all" or "some"
    • Ex. Not every investment banker is a crook -> Some investment bankers are not crooks.
  10. Quantifier "all" is combined with "are not"
    • Depending on the meaning, these statements should either be translated as "No S are P" or "Some S are not P"
    • Ex. All prisoners are not violent -> Some prisoners are not violent people
  11. Statements that begin with "few" "a few" "almost all" "not quite all"
    • Must be translated as a compound arrangement of an I and O Proposition
    • Ex. Few sailors entered the regatta -> Some sailors are people who entered the regatta and some sailors are not people who entered the regatta.
  12. Conditional Statements
    Are always translated as universals. This involves "if", "then" or "only if"
  13. Conditional Statements with IF
    • The language following the actual or implied "if" goes in the subject term
    • Ex. If a salesperson calls on the phone, then I just hang up -> All calls from salespersons are calls where I hang up
  14. Conditional Statements with "then" and "only if"
    • Are statements that go in the predicate term
    • Ex.
  15. Unless = If not
    • Translate statements containing "unless" as categorical propositions having negated subject terms.
    • Ex. Tomatoes are edible unless they are spoiled -> All unspoiled tomatoes are edible tomatoes
  16. Exclusive Propositions
    • Propositions include "only", "none but" "none except" "no...except" go into the predicate term
    • Ex. Only persons wearing wristbands can enter the festival -> All persons who can enter the festival are persons wearing wristabands
  17. Statements that begin with "The Only"
    • Are translated differently than "only" and terms that follow "the only" go into the subject term
    • Ex. Android phones are the only phones imported by her company -> All phones imported by her company are android phones
  18. Exceptive Propositions
    • "All except S are P" and "All but S are P" and they require conjoined categorical propositions.
    • Ex. All except those under 21 are allowed to gamble in Las Vegas -> No under 21 persons are persons allowed to gamble in Las Vegas, and all non under 21 persons are persons allowed to gamble in Las Vegas
  19. All S are P
    A prop. shaded S circle
  20. No S are P
    E prop. Shaded middle circle
  21. Some S are P
    I prop. X in middle circle
  22. Some S are not P
    O prop. X in S circle
  23. Existential Import
    When you go from a Universal statement to a Particular statement you make the existential fallacy
  24. It is false that some A are B
    It is the contradictory proposition that is created so. All A are B is an A prop with Shaded A circle and the contradictory is Some A are not B which is an X in the A circle
  25. Quantifiers
    Propositions that start with "all" "no" or "some"
  26. Quality
    • Can be affirmative and negative
    • Affirmative: All S are P and Some S are P
    • Negative: No S are P and Some S are not P
  27. A statement Distribution
    Distributes the Subject
  28. E statement distributes
  29. I statement distributes
  30. O statement distributes
Card Set
Logic Test 3
Logic Test 3