Integumentary system

  1. role of langerhans cells and skin
    engulf foreign substances when skin is injured
  2. Skin changes as we age? what is the most important factor?
    • sun exposure is the single most important factor leading to skin degeneration
    • other changes such as decrease in collagen or hyper/hypo pegmentation
  3. assessment of skin?
    integrity (moisture, skin lesions, edema) and assisting with hygiene
  4. Skin cancers assessment tool?
    • A: asymmetry
    • B: border irregularity
    • C: color variation
    • D: diameter greater than 6mm
    • E: evolving or changing in any feature (shape, size, color, elevation, itching, bleeding, crusting)
  5. Image Upload 1
    • Pearly papule 
    • Irregular borders-waxy-asymmetrical
    • Basal cell carcinoma
  6. Image Upload 2
    • squamous cell carcinoma
    • red, crusty, asymmetrical, lesion.
  7. Image Upload 3
    • actinic keratosis
    • macule 
    • black, crusty, bleeding, scabby,
  8. Image Upload 4
    • Actinic Keratosis
    • (premalignant lesion squamous cell CA)Small macule/papule with dry, rough, yellow or brown scale
  9. Image Upload 5
    • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    • Firm, nodular lesion with crusty or ulcerated top
    • Indurated margins
    • May be attached to underlying tissue w/deep invasion
  10. Image Upload 6
    • Basal Cell Carcinoma
    • Pearly papule, central crater, waxy borders, telangiectasias
  11. Image Upload 7
    • Basal Cell Carcinoma
    • Pearly papule, central crater, waxy borders, telangiectasias
  12. Dermatitis?
    • common disorder
    • most are allergic immune responses
    • S&S: severe itching, lesions with indistinct borders, different distribution patterns
  13. Folliculitis
    • superficial infection of the folicle
    • Bacterial: staph
    • Rash that is raised, red, may have small pustules
  14. Furuncles
    • Deep infection of the follicle
    • Bacterial: Staph/strep
    • small, tender, red nodules, develop pus overtime
  15. Carbuncle
    collection of furuncles with many heads
  16. Cellulitis
    Image Upload 8
    • bacterial skin infection of the deeper connective tissue
    • can be secondary to a wound
    • staph and strep very common.
  17. Fungal infections, Dermatophytes?
    • are infecting fungi that live in soil, on animals and humans. 
    • Spreads via direct contact and some can survive for a limited time on items fomites
  18. Yeast infections?
    • Grows easily in moist, warm environments
    • is a common superficial fungal infection.
    • Risk factors: immunosuppressed patients, long-term antibiotic therapy, DM, Obesity, hot-humid climates
  19. Herpes simplex virus
    • Type 1: oral-cold sores
    • Type 2: Genital herpes
    • Dormant in nerve ganglia
    • Reactivated by stress
    • Outbreak 3-10 days, Virus sheds for 3-5 days
    • Tingling or burning prior to presentation
    • Herpatic whitlow-Herpes infection on fingertips of healthcare workers easily transmitted to patients.
  20. Herpes zosters/ varicella zoster
    • reactivation of varicella zosters in root ganglia leading to shingles-similar lesions to herpes-they follow nerve pathways.
    • Neuralgia: severe pain after lesions have disappeared.
  21. Exanthem skin condition?
    • red, papular rash on the trunk
    • commonly related to viruses
  22. Patient education?
    • Sun/UV exposure
    • Monthly self-skin examinations
    • regular skin hygiene-clean and dry
    • childbearing women should know risks associated with drugs for skin
  23. corneal staining is used for what?
    to check for abrasions and ulcerations
  24. Ishihara chart is used for what?
    to assess for color blindness
  25. Glaucoma is the result of?
    • imbalance between production and outflow of aqueous humor. If IOP becomes too high it compresses retinal blood vessels and photoreceptors.
    • treatments-eye drops, apply pressure to lacrimal ducts to prevent systemic absorption.
  26. Legal blindness?
    20/200 or less
  27. causes of conductive hearing loss?
    mechanical problem with moving the sound waves through the outer ear to the middle ear.  Common causes include cerumen impaction, infection, destruction of the ossicles.
  28. Sensorineural hearing loss
    problem with the inner ear sensing sound waves.  Usually due to destruction of cilia within the ear canals
  29. Vestibular hearing loss:
    hearing loss due to damage of the vestibulo nerve, usually from ototoxic drugs
  30. Presbycusis:
    hearing loss with age
  31. Prevention of tinnitus
    Avoid foods high in caffeine or salt, manage stress, anxiety, migraines, allergies,
  32. Meniere's disease
    disorder of the inner ear that leads to vertigo
Card Set
Integumentary system