CLS09 - molds part 2

  1. Zygomycetes spp + how do you tell them apart?
    • Rhizopus: no branching and HAS rhizoid
    • Mucor: branching and NO rhizoid
    • Image Upload 1
  2. Zygomycetes - hyphae, septa, unique structures, habitat, infection, disease
    • hyphae: large, ribbon-like
    • septa: mostly non-septate
    • structuressporangia (saclike fruiting structures)
    • Sporangiospores (spores WITHIN sporangium)
    • sporangiophore (supporting structure for sporangium)
    • zygosporangium (thick-walled resting spore)
    • suspensors (provide structural support for zygospore)
    • Rhizoids (root-like structures)
    • habitat: decaying matter, bread, soil
    • infection: inhalation
    • rarely trauma or ingestion
    • disease: immunocomp are at risk (diabetes, prolonged drug therapy)
    • Mucormycosis - vascular invasion (rhinocerebral), various invasion and necrosis
    • Image Upload 2
  3. Describe the reproductive cycle of Zygomycetes (image)
    Image Upload 3
  4. Zygomycetes - appearance on plate
    • Fluffy (cotton candy)
    • lid lifters (grow faster than other fungi)
    • Hyphae are grayish and dotted w/ dark sporangia
    • Image Upload 4
  5. Where do dermatophytes infect and why?
    • Dermatophites are restricted to the outer skin
    • They utilize keratin as a N source and require a lower temp
  6. What is dermatomycoses? Tinea? Tinea capitis, tinea barbae, tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis, tinea manuum, tinea unguium
    • Dermatomycoses: infections of the hair, skin, and nails
    • tinea: ringworm
    • tinea capitis: scalp (hair loss)
    • tinea barbae: chin/beard (mainly from animals)
    • tinea corporis: body
    • tinea cruris: groin ("jock itch")
    • tinea pedis: foot ("athlete's foot")
    • tinea manuum: hand
    • tinea unguium: nails (persistant colonization)
  7. Tricophyton general - Conidia, types of invasion, ID
    • conidia: numerous microconidia (spherical, teardrop/clublike)
    • rare macroconidia (smooth, club-shaped, thin-walled) - peapod esque
    • invasion: endothrix (hair shaft filled w/ arthroconidia)
    • ectothrix (spores are found around the hair shaft)
    • ID: infected hairs do not fluroesce under UV
  8. Trichophyton rubrum - hair perforation, fast/slow, unique colony, unique micro
    • hair: does not perforate
    • speed: slow
    • colonycherry-red reverse surface
    • conidia: club-shaped (cavate) microconidia
    • Image Upload 5
    • cigar shaped 3-8 septa macroconidia
  9. Trichophyton mentagrophytes- hair perforation, fast/slow, unique colony, unique micro
    • hair: perforates
    • speed: rapid
    • colony: orange-red reverse
    • conidia: round grape-like cluser microconidia
    • cigar shaped 2-5 septa macroconidia
    • coiled spiral hyphae
    • Image Upload 6
  10. Trichophyton tonsurans- fast/slow, unique colony, unique micro, requirements, disease
    • speed: slow
    • colony: brown, wrinkled, suedelike w/ deep fissures
    • micro: "birds on a wire" microconidia
    • Image Upload 7
    • req: needs enriched media (BHA, SDA)
    • disease: epidemic form of tinea capitis (mainly children)
  11. Microsporum audouinii - disease, ID, unique colony, unique micro
    • disease: tinea capitis among schoolchildren (spread by infected hair)
    • ID: infected hair shafts fluroesce yellow-green
    • colony: produce aerial hyphae (velvety appearance)
    • salmon-pink
    • micro: Antler and racquet hyphae
    • Image Upload 8
  12. Microsporum canis - disease, ID, unique colony, unique micro
    • disease: ringworm in dogs/cats (and humans who come in contact with them)
    • ID: infected hair shafts fluoresce yellow-green
    • colony: fluffy white/buff w/ yellow fringe
    • bright yellow-orange reverse
    • micro: microconidia varies, but macroconidia are plentiful
    • macroconidia are large 'spindle-shaped' (pea pod) w/ spiny projections
    • Image Upload 9
  13. Epidermophyton floccosum - disease, unique colony, unique micro
    • disease: infection in skin and nails (not hair)
    • colony: yellow/khaki w/ orange/brown reverse
    • lumpy and sparse, radially grooved
    • micro: no microconidia
    • numerous club-shaped macroconidia that transform into chlamydoconidia
    • Image Upload 10
  14. Aspergillis general - type of infections, classification
    • infections: opportunistic mycoses
    • disseminated infections, sinus fungus ball, otomycosis, onychomycosis
    • class: either Ascomycota OR Deuteromycota (fungi imperfecti)
  15. Aspergillus fumigatus - unique colony, unique micro
    • colony: fluffly, white to blue-green
    • Image Upload 11
    • micro: branching of hyphae, conidiophores w/ a foot cell at base (macroscopic)
    • Image Upload 12
  16. Aspergillus niger - unique colony, unique micro
    • colony: yellow colonies that turn black, appear "peppery"
    • Image Upload 13
    • micro: darkly pigmented spores (macroscopic)
    • Image Upload 14
  17. Penicillium general - unique colony, unique micro
    • colony: green to blue-green colonies w/ velvety surface
    • micro: brushlike conidiophores
    • hyaline (clear) septate hyphae
  18. Fusarium general - disease, unique colony, unique micro
    • disease: necrotic skin lesions, wound infection
    • colony: cottony, fluffy w/ varying colors (pink shown)
    • microcanoe shaped macroconidia
  19. What causes most systemic mycoses? How are most detected?
    • Dimoprhic fungi (yeast and mold form)
    • Immunocmp at greater risk
    • most detected via serological testing or biopsy
  20. Blastomyces dermatitidis - disease, habitat, transmission, specimen, unique colony, unique micro
    • disease: blastomycosis
    • starts in lungs and disseminates
    • acute or chronic suppurative and granulomatous infections anywhere in body
    • habitat: central and southeastern US
    • transmission: airborne spores from contam soil
    • specimen: bronchial, blood
    • colony: 25C on SDA = yeast like then prickly, then cottony
    • 37C on BHI = large, thick-walled, round yeasts
    • micro: 25C on SDA = round conidia on apex of conidiophore (lollipop like)
    • 37C on BHI = yeast-like cells that bud on broad base
    • Image Upload 15
    • *definitive ID through culture conversion, Ag testing, or PCR
  21. Coccoides immitis - unique, disease, habitat, transmission, considerations, unique colony, unique micro
    • uniquedimporphism not dependent on temperature
    • spherule NOT yeast
    • disease: valley fever (coccidiomycosis)
    • self-limiting lung infections
    • severe infections (chronic pneumonia) require treatment
    • MAY DISSEMINATE
    • habitat: endemic in dry desert-like areas (CA)
    • transmission: inhalation of arthrospores from infected soil, dust
    • considerationseasily transmissible (BSC, no slide cultures, etc)
    • "selected agent" = many steps to transport
    • colony: moist, white, "ice-rink" to cottony w/ age
    • *can induce spherule formation
    • micro: thick-walled barrel-shaped arthroconidia that alernate w/ empty cells
    • Image Upload 16
    • Spherule phase are circular and contain endospores (multiple stains appear differently)
    • Image Upload 17
  22. Histoplasma capsulatum - disease, habitat, transmission, specimen, unique colony, unique micro
    • disease: histoplasmosis
    • chronic, granulomatous infection of reticuloendothelial system (can be fatal)
    • habitat: meidwest and SE US
    • transmission: inhalation of aerosolized conidia
    • associated with birds (chicken houses) and bats (caver's disease)
    • specimen: respiratory, bone marrow
    • colony: 25C = fine and dense white-brown
    • 37C = yeast-like colonies (inhibit by cyclohexamide)
    • micro: 25C = tuberculate macroconidia (diagnostic)
    • Image Upload 18
    • 37C = small round oval-budding cells
    • *thermal conversion not always achieveable
  23. Sporothrix schenckii - disease, transmission, specimen, unique colony, unique micro
    • disease: Rose gardener's disease (sporotrichosis)
    • minor skin wound -> lymphatic -> subcutaneous infection (rarely leaves lymph system)
    • Pulmonary disease if inhaled
    • transmission: trauma (thorns)
    • specimen: aspirate from subcutaneous nodules
    • colony: small white w/ no aerial hyphae -> moist wrinkled leathery
    • 37C -> yeast round oval budding cells (require several generations for good morph)
    • micro: microconidia as flowerets attached to conidiophore by denticle
    • Image Upload 19
    • 37C -> single or multiple spherical to cigar-shaped yeast cells
  24. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis - disease, unique colony, unique micro
    • disease: South American blastomycosis
    • chronic granulomatous disease
    • lungs -> mucous membranes nose/mouth -> skin, lymph nodes, organs
    • colony: 25C = white folded compact colony
    • 37C = heaped, cream-tan, moist/soft
    • micro: 25-30C= only septate hyphae, some terminal chlamydospores
    • 35-37C = large round thick-walled cells
    • buddings attached by narrow connections
    • mariner's wheel
    • Image Upload 20
  25. Penicillium mameffei - disease, unique colony, unique micro
    • disease: emerging pathogen (mostly immunocomp)
    • occasionally SE Asian travelers or indiginous
    • colony: 25C SDA = white w/ yellow conidial head that produce a diffusible wine red pigment
    • Image Upload 21
    • 37C = rough, glabrous, tan-colored, yeast-like
    • *conversion best in BHI broth on shaker
    • micro: 25C = general Penicillium
    • 37C = single celled oval arthroconidia
    • Image Upload 22
Author
victimsofadown
ID
319664
Card Set
CLS09 - molds part 2
Description
CLS09 - molds part 2
Updated