CHAPTERS 11 & 13

  1. The Nervous System Functions of the Nervous System
    • Receiving sensory input: Monitor internal and external stimuli. 
    • Integrating information: Brain and spinal cord process sensory input and initiate responses. 
    • Controlling muscles and glands (synapse). 
    • Maintaining homeostasis. Regulate and coordinate physiology. 
    • Establishing and maintaining mental activity consciousness, thinking, memory, emotion.
  2. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    • Brain (cerebrum & cerebellum)
    • Brainstem
    • Spinal cord
  3. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    • Cranial nerves, Spinal nerves, and Peripheral nerves
    • Cranial nerves 12 pairs (CN I - XII)
    • Spinal nerves 31 pairs (8C, 12T, 5L, 1Co)
  4. Sensory
    • Afferent: Ascending tracts carry sensory. 
    • Transmits action potentials from receptors to CNS. 
    • Pseudounipolar (uni-polar) neuron.
  5. Motor Nervous System
    • Efferent: Descending tracts carry to motor. 
    • Transmits action potentials from CNS to effectors (muscles, glands, etc). 
    • Multipolar neuron. 
    • Autonomic nervous system
    • Somatic nervous system
  6. Somatic (motor:efferent) nervous system
    • Voluntary
    • Skeletal Muscles
    • Synapse
    • Single neuron system
  7. Autonomic (motor:efferent) nervous system
    • Parasympathetic: Rest and Digest. Slow heart rate. 
    • Sympathetic: Fight or Flight. Fast heart rate. 
    • Two neuron system:
    • First motor neuron: (preganglionic neuron) from CNS to ganglion.
    • Second motor neuron: (postganglionic neuron) from ganglion to effector.
  8. Anatomy of the neuron
    • Soma (cell body): Nucleus, Nssl substance. Nissl substance = chromatophilic substance = rough E.R.: primary site of protein synthesis. 
    • Dendrites: receives and conveys nerve impulses towards the soma.
    • Trigger Zone: Between the cell body and axon. 
    • Axon: Relay action potential away from axon. Review action potential. 
    • Myelin sheath: Not all axons are myelinated. A layer of material that insulates the axon to increase the velocity of electrical impulse conduction. 
    • Nodes or Ranvier: Gap between myelin sheaths.
  9. Types of neuron
    • Sensory (afferent): Brings information to the CNS.
    • Motor (efferent): Sends information away from CNS. 
    • Interneuron (association neuron): is found between the two
  10. Pseudo-unipolar neuron
    appears to have an axon and no dendrites
  11. Bipolar neuron
    has a dendrite and an axon
  12. Multipolar neuron
    has many dendrites and an axon
  13. Ependymall cell
    cerebral-spinal-fluid circulation
  14. Satelllite cell
    support the other neurons
  15. Schwann cell
    form myelin sheaths for axons in the PNS
  16. Oligodencrytes
    form myelin sheaths for axons in the CNS
  17. Microglia
    removes debris and bacteria
  18. Choroid plexus
    produces cerebal-spinal-fluid
  19. Astrocyte
    blood-brain-barrier (BBB)
  20. Myelinated axon
    Nodes of Ranvier are used for "saltatory conduction" to skip node to node to increase velocity.
  21. Gray Matter
    • Gray matter peripheral aspect located.
    • Unmyelinated axons
    • Cell bodies
    • Dendrites
    • Neuroglia
  22. White Matter
    • Myelin sheath
    • Nerve tracts propagate action potentials from one area in the CNS to another.
  23. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    Nuclei, Tracts, & Oligodendrocytes.
    • Nuclei: collection of cell bodies.
    • Tracts: collection of Axons. 
    • Oligodendroctyes: collection of myelin sheaths.
  24. Collections of Myelin sheath in the CNS are known as?
  25. Collections of Axons in the CNS are known as?
  26. Collections of cell bodies in the CNS are known as?
  27. Collections of Myelin sheath in the PNS are know as?
    Schwann Cells
  28. Collections of Axons in the PNS are know as?
  29. Collection of cell bodies in the PNS are known as?
  30. Action Potential
    • Depolarization
    • Repolarization
    • Hyperloarization
    • All-or-none principle
    • 3 Na+ out / 2 K+ pump in
  31. Relative [refractory period]
    Requires a lot more energy to stimulate again.
  32. Absolute [refractory period]
    Cannot generate another action potential. Cannot be stimulated again.
  33. Acetylcholine (ACh) is broken down by?
    Acetylcholineasterase (AChE)
  34. Norepinephrine (NE) is broken down by?
    Monoamine oxidase (MAO)
  35. Combined spatial & Temporal summation 
    [neuronal synapse]
  36. Temporal summation
    [neuronal synapse]
    Multiple action potential.
  37. Spatial summation
    [neuronal synapse]
    1 action potential per neuron.
  38. Cranial nerve X
    It is the cranial nerve going to the heart.
  39. What is Rough ER also know as in the neuron?
    Known as (nissl substance) to  produce proteins.
  40. The spinal nerves contains only motor neurons? (True/False)
    False. It contains both motor and sensory neurons.
  41. Dorsal root contains both sensory and motor neurons? (Trued/False)
    False. Contains only sensory neurons.
  42. Spinal Nerves
    • 8C = C1-C7
    • 12T = T1-T12
    • 5L = L1-L5
    • 5S = Sacrum (5)
    • 1C = Coccyx (4/5) Pseudounipolar
  43. Mitochandria (located in the soma) produces what for the neuron?
  44. Norepinephrine (NE)
    • Norepinephrine (NE):
    • Monamine oxidase (MAO): Breaks down norepinephrine (NE). Inhibits the function to raise level of norepinephrine.
  45. Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
    • Excitatory: Excite the cell. Fire the action potential. 
    • Depolarization
  46. Inhibitory postsypnaptic potential (IPSP)
    • Inhibitory: Decrease amount of neurotransmitters. 
    • Hyperpolarization.
  47. Oscillating
    [neuronal pathways and circuit]
    Forms a loop.
  48. Divergent
    [neuronal pathways and circuit]
    From one to multiple neuron.
  49. Convergent
    [neuronal pathways and circuit]
    From multiple neuron to one.
  50. What are the primary brain vesicles commonly referred to as?
    • Forebrain (Prosencephalon)
    • Midbrain (Mesencephalon)
    • Hindbrain (Rhombencephalon)
  51. What are the secondary brain vesicles that develop?
    • [Te]lencephalon
    • [Di]encephalon
    • [Me]secephalon
    • [Me]tencephalon
    • [My]elencephalon
  52. What are the adult cavity regions?
    • Lateral Ventricles
    • Third Ventricle
    • Cerebral Aqueduct
    • Fourth Ventricle
    • Central Canal
  53. Brainstem
    • Brainstem
    • Medulla Oblongata
    • Pons
    • Midbrain
    • Reticular formation
  54. Diencephalon
    • Thalamus
    • Subthalamus
    • Epithalamus
    • Hypothalamus
  55. Pineal gland
    Sleep cycle. Melatonin. Circadian rhythm.
  56. Corpora quadrigemina
    • Superior colliculi
    • Inferior colliculi
  57. Pineal Gland [Epithalamus]
    Produces melatonin. Regulates sleep-wake cycles with circadian rhythm.
  58. Corpora quadrigemina
    • Superior colliculi: visual pathway.
    • Inferior colliculi: auditory pathway.
  59. Cerebellar penducles 
    [posterior to pons]
    Fiber tracts that communicate with other parts of the brain.

    • Superior cerebellar peduncle: cerebellum to midbrain.
    • Middle cerebellar peduncle: cerebellum to pons. 
    • Inferior cerebellar penducle: cerebellum to medulla oblongata.
  60. Pyramidal descussation
    Cross tracts.
  61. Primary motor cortex
    frontal lobe
  62. Broca's area
    • Left lobe. 
    • Speak and form words.
  63. Parietal lobe
    Primary somatosensory cortex.
  64. Occipital lobe
    Primary visual cortex
  65. Temporal lobe
    Auditory cortex
  66. Wernicke's area
    • Left lobe.
    • Comprehend.
  67. Commissural fiber
    Connect one hemisphere to the other.
  68. Corpus striatum
    The nuclei in the cerebrum (caudate and lentiform) are called the corpus striatum.
  69. Functions of the limbic system
    • Basic survival functions such as
    • memory
    • reproduction
    • nutrition
    • emotions
    • olfaction
  70. Meninges of the brain
    • Dura mater
    • Arachnoid mater
    • Pia Mater
  71. Space between meninges
    • Subdural space: below the dura mater(serous fluid). 
    • Subarachnoid space: below the arachnoid mater (CSF location).
  72. Dura mater
    • Falx cerebri: between the two cerebral hemispheres. 
    • Tentorium cerebelli: cerebellum and cerebrum.
    • Falx cerebelli: two cerebellar hemispheres.
  73. Choroid Plexus
    Produces CSF
  74. Arachnoid granulations
    reabsorb CSF
  75. Third ventricle 
    [within diencephalon]
    Interventricular foramina (Foramen of Monro): join lateral ventricles with third.
  76. Fourth ventricle
    Cerebellum forms the roof of the 4th ventricle and the Pons form the floor. 

    • Connected to third and foourth ventricle by the cerebral (Aqueduct of Sylvius) aqueduct
    • continuous with the spinal cord (central canal), and connected to the subarachnoid
    • space by the lateral (Foramen of Luschka) and median (Foramen of Magendie)
    • apertures
  77. Cranial Nerve Names Mnemonic
    • [O]h: I. Olfactory [S]
    • [O]h: II. Optic [S]
    • [O]h: III. Oculomotor [M]
    • [T]o: IV. Trochlear [M]
    • [T]ouch: V. Tigenimal [B]
    • [A]nd: VI. Abducens [M]
    • [F]eel: VII. Facial [B]
    • [V]irgin: VIII. Vestibulcochlear [S]
    • [G]irls': IX. Glossopharyngeal [B]
    • [V]agina: X. Vagus [B]
    • [A]mazing: XI. Accessory [M]
    • [H]appiness: XII. Hypoglassal [M]
  78. Cranial Nerve Sensory/Motor Mnemonic
    • [S]ome: I. OLFACTORY [SMELL]
    • [S]ay: II. OPTIC [VISION]
    • [M]oney: III. OCULOMOTOR [AL3, EYE]
    • [M]atters: IV. TROCHLEAR [SO4]
    • [M]y: VI. ABDUCENS [LR6]
  79. Muscles of Mastication
    • Masseter
    • Temporalis
    • Medial pterygoid
    • Lateral pterygoid
Card Set
CHAPTERS 11 & 13
Anatomy/Physiology I