HMWH Unit 8 Part 1

  1. Truman Doctrine
    Stated the US would provide money to countries (in this case, Greece) threatened by Commie expansion
  2. European Recovery Program/Marshall Plan
    • Marshall was a chief of staff for the US Army during WWII and won a Nobel Peace Prize for the Marshall Plan
    • Was designed to rebuild prosperity and stability of Europe
    • Included $13 bullion in aid for economic recovery
    • Underlying Marshall Plan was the belief that Commie aggression was successful in countries where there were economic problems
  3. Satellite (Buffer) States
    • Refused to participate in the Marshall Plan
    • Soviets saw the Marshall Plan as an attempt to buy support from countries
    • Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
    • Soviet response to the Marshall Plan
    • Failed because the Soviet Union was unable to provide necessary financial aid
  5. Policy of Containment
    Kept communism w/in its existing boundaries and prevent further Soviet aggressive moves
  6. Berlin
    • Divided into four zones
    • February 1948, Great Britain, France, US were making plans to unify the three Western sections and Berlin and create a West German govn
    • Soviet Union created a blockade, preventing trucks, trains, food, supplies, or barges to enter the three Western zones
    • Solution for this was the Berlin Airlift; for 10 months, more than 200,000 flights and 2.3 million tons
    • Soviets lifted blockade May 1949
  7. West Germany/East Germany
    • West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany) was formally created Sept 1949
    • East Germany (German Democratic Republic) was set up by the Soviets
  8. Arms Race
    • United States and Soviet Union were involved in an arms race, in which both countries built up their armies and weapons and nuclear weapons became increasingly destructive
    • Both sides believed an arsenal of nuclear weapons would prevent war and because of this, neither side could risk using their massive supplies of weapons
  9. NATO/Warsaw Pact
    • North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed April 1949
    • Formed when Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Netherlands, Great Britain, Italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, and Iceland signed a treaty w/ the US and Canada, then later Greece, West Germany, and Turkey
    • All powers who signed agreed to provide mutual help if any one of them was attacked
    • 1955, Warsaw Pact was created when the USSR joined w/ Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, West Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania in a formal military alliance
    • Europe was once again divided into hostile alliance systems, just like it had been in WWI
  10. Korean War
    • Soviets and Americans agreed to divide Korea into two zones and hold elections to reunify Korea
    • American-Soviet relations grew worse, and two different govn in Korea were created: Commie in the north, anti-Commie in the south
    • Stalin sent North Korean troops to South Korea June 25, 1950
    • October 1950, UN forces were sent w/ the aim of unifying Korea, and Chinese sent hundreds of thousands of Chinese troops into North Korea and pushed the UN back
    • Three more years of fighting and no final victory and an armistice was signed 1953
    • Tensions between the two countries remain high, and w/ North Korea pouring money into the military, the country’s economic situation grows worse
    • 2002, fears arose of North Korean leaders pursuing nuclear weapons despite sucky economy
    • US, Great Britain, France, Pakistan, Thailand, Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand formed the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
    • The Central Treaty Organization (Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Great Britain, US) was meant to prevent the Soviet Union from expanding to the south
  12. Space Race
    • 1957, Soviets sent Sputnik I, the first man-made satellite, to orbit Earth
    • The US was afraid it held missiles
  13. Deterrence
    • This policy held that huge arsenals of nuclear weapons on both sides prevented war
    • Belief that neither side would launch a nuclear attack because the other side would be able to strike back w/ devastating power (Look at Arms Race)
  14. Berlin Wall
    • A wall built to separate East Germany from West Berlin to stop those from escaping Commies in the east to find a better place to live in prosperity in West Berlin
    • Had massive barrier guarded by barbed wire, floodlights, machine-gun towers, minefields, and dog patrols
    • It became a striking symbol of the division between two superpowers (Iron Curtain, etc.)
  15. Nikita Khrushchev
    • 1955, new leader of the Soviet Union tried to take advantage of the US concern over missiles to solve the problem of West Berlin
    • Many escaped East Berlin to West Berlin because they were tired of the Commies
    • August 1961, East German govn began to build a wall separating East Germany from West Berlin (Berlin Wall)
  16. Cuban Missile Crisis
    • 1959, Fidel Castro overthrew the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista and set a Soviet-supported totalitarian regime in Cuba
    • Kennedy approved a secret plan for Cuban exiles to invade Cuba in hope of causing a revolt against Castro--the invasion was a disaster
    • Many of the exiles were killed/captured at an attempted landing at the Bay of Pigs
    • After Bay of Pigs, Soviet Union sent arms and military advisors to Cuba
    • 1962, Khrushchev began to place nuclear missiles in Cuba
    • Kennedy decided to blockade Cuba to prevent the Soviet fleet and this gave both sides time to find a peaceful solution
    • Soviet wouldn’t attack as long as Kennedy didn’t invade, and Kennedy agreed
    • It brought the world frighteningly close to nuclear war
  17. Vietnam War
    • 1954, France agreed to a peace settlement and Vietnam was divided into two parts: in the north, Commies were based in Hanoi, in the south, non-Commies were based in Saigon
    • US gave aid to the south, and in spite of it, South Vietnamese Commie guerrillas (aka Viet Cong) were on the verge of seizing control by 1965
    • March 1965, Pres Johnson sent US troops to South Vietnam to prevent the Commies from taking over
    • North Vietnam responded by sending more forces to the south
    • By 1960, the war had reached a stalemate
    • Pres Nixon reached an agreement w/ North Vietnam in 1973
    • The reunification of Vietnam under Commies had immediate impact in the region
    • Cambodia was ruled over dictator Khmer Rouge and had massacred 1.5 Cambodians between 1975 and 1979
    • Commie triumph in Indochina didn’t lead to “falling dominoes"
  18. Domino Theory
    A theory that states that if one country in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would create a domino effect and fall to communism as well
  19. Post WWII Soviet Economy/Life
    • To create a new industrial base, Soviet workers were expected to produce goods for export
    • Same strict lifestyle was found in Eastern Europe where the Soviet Union controlled the commie govns of the region
    • Periodically, the people rebelled
  20. De-Stalinization
    • The process of eliminating the more ruthless policies of Stalin
    • At the Twentieth Congress of the Communist Party in 1956, Khrushchev condemned Stalin for his “administrative violence, mass repression, and terror”
Card Set
HMWH Unit 8 Part 1
Unit 8 Part 1: Truman Doctrine, European Recovery Program/Marshall Plan, Satellite (Buffer) States, COMECON, Policy of Containment, Berlin, West Germany/East Germany, Arms Race, NATO/Warsaw Pact, Korean War, SEATO/CENTO, Space Race, Deterrence, Berlin Wall, Nikita Khrushchev, Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam War, Domino Theory, Post WWII Soviet Economy/Life, De-Stalinization